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Government of Tamilnadu 



Inhuman- Crime 

Department of School Education 

A Publication Under 

Government of Tamilnadu 

Distribution of Free Textbook Programme 


© Government of Tamilnadu 
First Edition - 2011 

(This Book published under Uniform System of School Education scheme) 

Text Book Team: 

TmtV. Vijayakanthi, Prirkcipa! (Retd.,) Govt> Teacher Training Institute for women, Chennai> 

Dr. Shashi Swaran Singh, RG. Asst., RCX.G, Govt. H-S-S, Kodambakkam, Chennai, 

Mrs.S.K. Kanchana, RG, Asst, GRT Mahalakshmi Vidyalaya Matrjc.School, West Mambalam. 

MrsMA, Padmavathy, RG,Asst,, Muthaiyalpet (B) Hr.Sec. School, Chennai, 

Mrs. Georgina PremKumar, B,T Asst,, SBOA Matric, H.S-S, Anna Nagar Chennai, 

Mr. Sujith Gladwin, B.T Asst., Govt. High School, Salaimahkulam, Virudhunagar. 

Review Committee: 

Mr. J. fnbaraj, Sr Lecturer, D,LE.T, Thiair, Thiruvallur District 

Mrs.Ujitha Lloyd, RG. Teacher, Presidency (G) Hr.Sec. School, Egmore, Chennai. 

Chairperson : 

Dr.Meenakshi Hariharan, Associate Prof, of English, Queen Mary's College, Chennai. 

Expert Committee : 

DrM Rajagopatan, Prof, of English (Retd>,), M,C-CThambaram, Chennai. 
Mrs, Rajeswari Menon, Principal, SBOA Matric, H.S.S, Anna Nagar. Chennai. 

Loser Typeset A Layout i M. Vijaycsarathy, T.Raghu R. Anandhan. 

Illustrations : M.Vijoyasarathy, Karunakaran, K.ftavf. 

Book Wrapper : M. Vijayasarathy 

Textbook Printing 
Tamilnadu Textbook Corporation, 
College Road, Chennai - 600 006 

Price: Rs. 

This book has been printed on 80 G.S.M Maplitho Paper 

Printed by Web Offset at: 

(S^tfluj ^^ii 


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umr^ Liroiu tiiSl^rr^ 
U(55flfmj «r6)iBgj ©ggijir^ UMjinlLrr 

^AJ SHJ {Brr(SLJO ggrKSffi 

gg6irr 6ism ui\fkiam ^nuia gguj (S^ 

gguj (dSUD gguj (d^ 3giu (S^ 


Jana-gana-mana-adhinayaka jaya he 

B harata-bhagya-vid hata. 
P unj a ba-Si nd hu-GuJa rata-Maratha- 

D ra vi da-U tkala-Banga 
Vi nd hya-H imacha la-Yam u na-G anga 

Java subha name jage, 

Java Subha asisa mage, 

Gahe tava jaya-gatha> 
Jana-gana-mangala-dayaka jaya he 

B harata-bhagya-vid hata 
Jaya he, jaya he, jaya he, 
Jaya jaya, jaya, jaya he. 

- Rabindranath Tagore. 


Jana-gana-mana-adhinayaka jaya he 
B harata-bhagya-vid hata . 

Jaya he, jaya he, jaya he 

Jaya jaya, jaya, jaya he. 


Thou art the ruler of the minds of all people. 

Thou dispenser of India's destiny. 
Thy name rouses the hearts of the Punjab, Sind, 

Gujarat and Maratha, of Dravid, Orissa and Bengal, 
It echoes in the hills of the Vindhyas and Himalayas, 

mingles in the music of the Yamuna and Ganges 

and is chanted by the waves of the India Sea. 
They pray for Thy blessings and sing Thy praise 
The saving of all people waits in Thy hand^ 
Thou dispenser of India's destiny. 
Victory, Victory, Victory to Thee. 


Q^a6fl56wr(y]ijb ^^fb^pji^ ^i}Tro!ilL.j5W ^(rjifirrglijb 
^ffiffi^ i51fiDfDgj^giJLb ^ifl^^fspji ^euffi^yjtoLD 
^0^6065 fiuire=«n6ur<Durrsb ,^\$aim^§\eo{^\h glrinxi(ipp 
^^^l6ineFiL|U] gi$LJ)LX]6iitn'6&€; @([3^^(^U(r3^ ^lilLpsiTniKSdB J 

fl5LiilLpOTnTiij(S<s ! 

Qe=uj6ixj)rDj5^ fiunrij^gl^m 1 fiiJrriJ^gl^GLii ! eiiri^^gigiCSu) ! 

— 'uitSsunrsffriJieffaiTiJLj)' (alu.ftrB^rrbaiiiiK 


Bharat is like the face beauteous of Earth clad in wavy seas; 

Deccan is her brow crescent-like on which the fragrant 'Tilak' is the 
blessed Dravidian land. 

Like the fragrance of that Tilak' plunging the world in joy supreme reigns 
Goddess Tamil with renown spread far and wide. 

Praise unto 'You, Goddess Tamil, whose majestic youthfulness. inspires 
awe and ecstasy.' 


"I solemnly pledge to work with dedication to preserve and strengthen the freedom and 
integrity of the nation." 

"I further affimi that I shall never resort to violence and that all differences and disputes 
relating to religion, language, region or other political or economic grievances should be 
settled by peaceful and constitutional means." 


Name : 

Class : School : 

I shall overcome the obstacles raised by caste and communal prejudices and work 
for the greatness of my Motherland putting to the fullest use the benefits that I derive through 

Vande mataram! 

I ^^ I Signature 


Unit TitJe 

Page No. 

1 . Buds to Blossoms [Prose] 


* Laugh and be Merry [Poem] 


A Man Who Had no Eyes [Supplementary] 


2. Gaia Tells her Tale [Prose] 


Earth [Poem] 


Amrita Devi - The Guardian Angel of Woods [Supplementary] 


3. The Will to Win [Prose] 


Don't Quit [Poem] 


A Race in the Space [Supplementary] 


4. The One Minute Apology [Prose] 


* The Apology [Poem] 


The Tears of the Desert [Supplementary] 


5. The Marvellous Machine [Prose] 


Be Glad your Nose is on your Face [Poem] 


Visit to the Dentist [Supptementary] 


6. Miriam's Letter [Prose] 


* A Sonnet for my Incomparable Mother [Poem] 


The Stroke of Genius [Supplementary] 


7. When Catastrophe Strikes [Prose] 


The Flying Wonder [Poem] 


The Thief [Supplementary] 


* Memoriter Poems 



The English textbook for Standard IX has been prepared following the 
guidelines given by National Curriculunn Framework^ 2005. The seven units of the 
book aim at acquainting the learners with different genres of literature such as story, 
autobiography, science fiction and humour. The different types of poems are 
selected to inspire the learners to explore the language and cherish the joy of 

The grammar and language activities are chosen to help the learners to 
communicate with confidence and accuracy. An attempt has been made to enrich 
Vocabu lary through a variety of activities on synonyms, antonyms, matching words to 
meanings, word building (prefixes, suffixes, phrasal verbs), British/American English, 
idioms^ phrases and abbreviations. Attention has been drawn to grammar in context. 
A close reading of the prose texts will facilitate the understanding of prepositions of 
time and space, sentence patterns, the use offenses, gemnds and infinitives, active 
and passive voice, modals, question tags, reported speech, conditional clause, 
transformation of sentences and relative pronouns. 

The learner friendly language study under the prose lesson of each unit 
focuses on the integration of four skills namely Listening, Speaking, Reading and 
Writing. Activity packed language tasks include role play, pairand group work, writing 
advertisements, making posters, preparing announcements and translating words 
used in everyday life. 

The task 'Warming - up' given at the beginning of each unit is designed to 
facilitate the learner develop the skill of guessing and predicting what is coming next. 
The learner should be encouraged to actively participate in this task. 

UNIT- 1 

The learners are on the threshold of adolescence. An attempt has been made 
in this unit to motivate the learners to set goals, develop certain qualities and 
positively condition the mind to achieve the same. It is suggested that the teacher 
narrates more stories for grooming the personality of students. The learners may be 
encouraged to read the biographies of great achievers and listen to the inspirational 
speeches and motivational talks of living legends. The poem and the supplementary 
chapter are thematlcally related. In the supplementary story, Mr. Parsons and 
Markwardt portray a vivid contrast. One man has decided to make the best of his 
handicap whereas the other has become bitter, pitying himself because of his 
handicap. Each has made his choice. This story brings out two types of human 
mentalities: that of the victi m and the victor. 


Our future and well-being Is closely linked with the well-being of the Planet 
Earth. Eco-degradation and its impact on all facets of life is heading towards alanning 
levels. The planet earth is a vibrant living entity. To add a personal touch and 
emotional facet, the prose piece is written in the form of an autobiography of Mother 
Earth. The learners should be made aware of the levels of carbon foot-prints every 
time they buy or consume some product. The poem by Khalil Gibran is chosen to 
highlight the great benevolence the Earth showers on human beings. Learners 
should be taught to appreciate the marvels and the magic of Mother Earth. The 
supplementary lesson is about a tribal community. The members of tribe went to the 
extent of sacrificing their lives to save trees, much before the modem worid realised 
the importance of trees in the Eco-system. 


This unitfocusses on the empowerment of women. 'The Will to Win' highlights 
how Anita, a humble village giri, not only empowered herself by procuring honey 
through bee-keeping but also helped the women in her village to raise their standard 
of living. The poem deals with 'never give in' attitude in life and the need to face the 
challenges with courage and determination. The supplementary lesson enlightens 
the grit and detemnination of Sunita Willams who became a successful astronaut. 


This unit deals with the human values and self-esteem. Here is an opportunity 
for the learners to understand and empathise with the feelings of fellow human 
beings, in the poem "The Apolog/' the poet seeks apology from the people working 
hard in the fields. The activity given under the supplementary lesson will sharpen the 
learners' skill of mind mapping and summarising the story. It will encourage them to 
read more stories. 


This unit deals with health and hygiene. An attempt has been made to unravel 
the mysteries of certain functions of our body. The unit also opens the learners' mind 
to some superstitious beliefs that have been there for ages. Linked closely to a 
person's features is his nose. A humorous poem written by Jack Prelutsky tells us 
about the position of the nose on the face. The supplementary lesson is a humorous 
narration of what happens in a dental clinic. Special effort has been made to bring 
awareness among learners on organ donation through some of the skills. 


This unit throws light on man's famiiy bondage and his reiationship with the 
society. Relationships are lil^e seeds. They have to be nurtured and developed. The 
story "Miriann's Letter" portrays the love of a father to his daughter He spends the rest 
of his life longing to hear from her. The poem "A Sonnet For My Incomparable Mother" 
depicts the admiration of a daughter for her mother. The supplementary lesson "A 
Stroke of a Genius" is an imaginary story that tells us about the master plan of Birbal. 


This u n it deals with the real life adventure that took place in an aeroplane. The 
presence of mind, courage and the conviction exhibited by the lead character would 
inspire the young minds and teach them to face any situation in their life. The poem 
highlights the adventurous spirit of the Wright brothers and 'to live and never say die' 
attitude of the siblings. The supplementary lesson is a science fiction with an element 
of surprise at the end . It kindles the creative competence of the young minds. 



Unff 1 

^™^* Buds to Blossoms .^ 

*A flfnnr is the pnoiplsc of a fmW jj^F 

Vnfftiiiio 1^ 

Everyone ta creetBd to be somebody in thta world. Those who realise this, 
ecooiriplish their mlasJon end touch the lives of their fellow beings. They bring about 
e whalesDme transfbrmetlon not only in their own lives but also In society. It is 
indeed a fulfilling experience to witness this change. You may have noticed a bud 
blooming into e blossom. A bud is small and delicate. It needs to be nourished and 
nMrtuned. When it blossoms, it creates joy and spreads its fragnance. YoUp Ihe gifted 
buds of todsyp will soon blossom and fill this world with the fragrance of your love, 
kindness and happiness. Do you hawe tha burning desire to achieve sornething big? 
What can possibly stand in the way of &uch passion? Success is just a few steps 
ahead and Is there vbp/ m uch for the taki ng . 


Long ago, there lived En a forest a pride of liens with several cubS- One ef the 
outs was atwaysourioustcknowabout things. Onedayhe saw abutterflyandsta rted 
chasing It. The little cub rBr\ and ran but was unable to catch the butlerffy. By then he 
had become too tired to run. He also realised that he had lost hla way. Betdm he knew 

anything , he liejl asleep. 

When the lion cub woke up, he found himself In 
^Irange company. Ha was surroundad by a flock of 
sheep and then there wars several lambs too for him 
to play with He seemed to like the new company and 

soon was aoceptfld t^y the s-heap. 

As days want by, Iha lien cub g raw bigger. But as ha grew in tha midst of aliaap, 
he developed all the qyalities of the sheep. His roar too was like a bleat. He was 
Ignorant thst hs could roar ao mightily that sheep would shuddar. He crAuchAd wl^ 
othar sheep, seeking cover when a wild animal chased the fiock or passed by. He 
looked far ff04in bain§tha king ofjungla^ Hadidnlava^n n&alisathatha was a lion. 

One day an old Ibn happened to pass by the plaoe where this young lion 
stayed. As was natural, the Did lion rDared seeing another lion. But he did not negpond 
with a noar. The old lion was astonished. He noared again and again but there was no 
response from tha young one. The pkj lion looked around and whan ha saw tha 
E hee p , h e snan und ersta[>d the reason for the cub's sfrs nge beha^Our. 

1 Hm ^tf ttli Ibn cub jaifi tht shtvp? 
2h H% drd IhK older Mm tukft HiK 

ynungtr ohc to fht poal"? 
I. Haw did rht. y^unj^ Jidn redcf on MMinq 
hts Ums^ \n tKe water? 


shudder: shiver 
craudi: fewer the body 
close to the chest 

The Did lion want&d th^ young one to realise his trus nature. So 

he took him to a nearby pool and made him look at his own neflsctlori In 

the water. A c^nditionad mind finds it dllUcult to believe its anginal 

nature, even when it meets the reHJtty eye to eye. The litUe lioni too whs 

net different. As h€ saw his image in the water he asked the old lion, "Is 

it ins?' Yes" replied the old lion and ^Id, "It is none other than you.' 

The old lion concinucxi and said, 'Now noarliki^ me. You'll be a tojo lion." 

So saving the Did Nan roared and roamed again. Gradually the young 

lion repeated the roar and after several attempts he gave such a 

ferocious roar that his sheep friends panicked and ran away. When he 

roared like a true lion, his lion instin[:ls returned to him. He l^ap^d about in joy upon 

realising his tnjc nature. The young lion. aCCOhnpank^ by the ddorofiep Walked Sfway 

majestically like the king of the jungle. 

Aren't some of you too like this young lion cub? It is quite reasonable to 
Supppse that young as ycu sre, yeu may be unaware qf your real talent and potential- 
Like this young cub, some of you may have set your own limitations by a liaulty 

ooncntioning or mind with cenvididns such a&; 

^ I arm good fior nothing, c> 

■=> I am not cut out for this. ^ 

This \t impossible for me, 
Luck dcesnT favour me. 

isnl !t time to break free from these seM - imposed limitations? In fact, you are pretty 

buds on the vangeof biossomirig into llowars. F^nrtembef that hidden inas^ed is \tm 

infinite potentJaJ of a mighty trea. 

Spread ydurv^ngs to discover new horizons in the promising 
foumey of your lifia While doing so, do not get disheartened by the 
impadimflnts and challenges you may Oome ai^oss. They are 
them fbr a purpose. They transfomi you from ordinary to 

esftra ordinary beings, II Is the rough s@a that makes a skills sailor. 

A ship may be safe in (he harbour but that is notwhataship isbuift 
for. Ff ^e charcoa I h ad thou g ht that \t was ugly and good for nothing, it woukd not have 
turned Into a sparkling dlamor^d- SimJIarty, If a person llkje Helen Keller had thought 
that H was Impossible fbr h&r to read and write, she could not have championed the 
cause of the visually challenged. Had Arjun Bajpai thought that he was too young to 
trek, he would not hav« been successful in scaling the Mount Everest el the tender 
age of 1€. These examples Imefutably prove that anyone 
<^natm htflh and echlewe stKJcess against all odds. 

I. What M Hden Ulci* UT\d Arjun BqjpoJ 

£. J-ifiw shjoujd yoij fact iht ^mfiedjmfnts 7 

cortdltiprted ; hobitiHted 

IfnpvdIkMJvrs : obfTxiclBS 
imftftflbly : conviFKing^ 

Each one gf you has an Indispensablo role to pisy In ft\h wo rid. Without you, 
this world will be ahort of one peraon and his/her contribution. iHaving set your goaf 
higin, vi^uaii^e marching towards it each day ofyourlire. Develop a passion Tor your 
goaJ. ^v« fajth in yourselif Jika tlie tity e girl In tha lo4lowJng sI£m>. 

Ones, a vlllaga w^as affllci&d by drouglit 

The Hng sumrriDned his subjects for a mass 

prayer to invake the blessings of \he rain God. 

People assembled in lange numbers with flowers, 

Incense sticks and lamps. One litlle giri alona 

brought an umbrella. "Why did you bring this?" an 

old man asked. The little one sard, "When we all 

Unite in prayer, it is going to rafn like as never 

before. I have brought this umbrella to get back home vyithout getUng waif Wo 

wonder, there was a tairentlai downpour that day .This is a simple story that reveals 

the power of Strang faith. So Gsmmenc^ your wari? with faith and piijceed with hard 

wo riband optimism. 

A man was once told of b pot filled with gold at the foot hills of the mountains. 
He coilecited his tools, went to the place indicated and began digging for gold. He kept 
diggingatHft^rs week. But then 3 little suspicion started nagging him. Howondcrod 
whether he would really Rnd gold or if he was on a fool's en-and. On the eighth day ha 
gave up digging. The very nest day a strangef passing that way stopped and 
questioned th6 presence of a big pit there. He was told that somebody had been 
digging there for gold. The stranger thought to himself. "Why notgive it a try? The work 
Is aiready half done anyway/ He dug with great faith and after the passage of a couple 
of days, he found gold. The first man who had tried eariier said with great regret, ■Had 
[ but dug for two more days, I would have secured that pot of gold.' Many of us give up 
Just before reselling the goal. Thomas Edison says. "Many of life's failures are 
experienced by people who did not realise how close they were to success when they 
gave up." Remember 'parxavarancB pays.' All your Ji^rd worit ajid po&JUve eneipy 
will cneate a rippie of change across the world. 

Afamrerused to fetch water ho me fn two buckets. One buccal had a smalf hote 

In H Theneforo every day, the fanner reached hon^e with one bucket full and the other 
half full Thft bucket with a hole was paJned at being unable to fulfill its purpose as 
effi ciently as the oth er. 

1, WKy art you Endii^seftte^tft te iht wsHd? 
Z. W>iy did The ^"rl bring ofi umbrtTla? 
1« W>ittt hvadft the ifvon get suspiciiaiif? 
4. Why wtis the oucket with a hoik 

unhappy ?^ 


Qfflicfcil : troubkd 

tlrrElTtial dmtii^ur '■ kEavyitlin 

^mvcnmcc '- ufiHtuc with 

iSppie '" wove 

B ut th e othe r bu cket said , "Look at the path over tA^Jcih y oy have traveJIed home every 
day. You have trensformad a graveled ruad into a beauUful bait of gra«n graas and 
oolDyrful flowers." This story demorrstfates the fmportance of seeing the things and 
people around you In a positive way. 

Everyone wakes up with 24 houfg of time aC hTs/her disposal. How wlaely Hie 
person spends time everyday detennines the success that he/she w^ 11 achieve In life. 
So tune yourself lo the proper frequency of time to realise your goal. Time is precious. 
Thin king of the pest or worrying about the future will not let you tbcus hundred percent 
on you rp resent . The present moment Is a blessing that has been bestowed upon you 
and you must make the n^wisf of Jt. Do not put off till tomornsw what you can do today. 
Each moment is spedaJ like you. 

Endowed as you are witti a unique parsortality, no one else is C9pal:i48 olba^ng 
ytu. Ian t It vwnd erf u I to know that nowhere Jn ths worfd can you fi nd n ny oitp c?se who 
looks the same as you? Take pride En the uniqueness of your nature ^s vvell. Is there 
a nythi n g u n d er the sun that yo u cann ot ach ie ve r wilh your in d I vi d ud tafertt.lntegri ty of 
thought, word and action, and humility? / -^ 

Be grateful for your uniqueness and the qualides of baad and heart When you 
are thankful for all that you necelve afid cciunt^^ujrblessipg^, you wlii neceive much 

more blessings. 

The great attributes of achievers such as A. P. J. Abdul Kaianrr, l\^other Teresa, 

and A.R. Rahm^ are all part of yoq. In you lias hidden, the 

■ t;9lent tif a Saina Nohwal or Vishwanathan Angnd, The 

'cha ri sm a of B ill Gates may 1 1 e d o rma nt i n you . U nde rstand 

your true natune, nourish end nurture the good in you. You do 

the greatest of favours to yourself, by being instrumental In 

ifiaki ng th is world a better pi ace . it's ti me to get to work, malw 

^ your mark and leave behind your footprints on the sands of 

timer Dream big and pursue those dreams fearlessly. The 

d ay i t pay^ of? wUI be worth a miiyon lives- 

Answer each of the foilawlng In a paragraph not ejcceedlng 1 QQ wonia, 

1 . What message do you get from the Hfcry of Ihe young lion? 

2. Are you conditioned by your circumstances? Justify your response. 

3. List out the steps that you shou Id follow to reach your goal 

L How or* you uni^|Ue? 
Z, T^ present marritnf is o ^ift - E^plaia, 
3. How can you make thil world a better 
pbcfi to live m^ 

endowed : bri^&d 
ottrlbulei : {)uatrti» 

chAfl^na I p«wer to ms^r± 
ilPftEunt : hidden 


I. Choose the most appropriate synonyms of the italicised words from the 
four alternatives given with each sentence. 

1 . Do not get disheartened by the challenges along the way. 

a. dissatisfied b. excited c. discouraged d. upset 

2. Some of you may have set your own convictions. 

a. beliefs b. ideas c. priorities d. objectives 

3. The king summoned his subjects for mass prayer. 

a. dictated b. ordered c. gathered d. called 

4. A little suspicion started nagging him. 

a. distressing b. pleasing c. stopping d. warning 

5. Everyone has an Indispensable role to play in this world. 

a. short b. essential c. major d. clear 

d. start 

d. threatened 

2. Choose the most appropriate antonyms of the italicised words from the 
four alternatives given with each sentence. 

1 . Always commence your work with faith, 
a. conclude b. continue c. complete 

2. All the sheep panicked and ran away, 
a. cried b. calmed c. scattered 

3. Take pride in your individual nature. 
a. joy b. honour c. humility 

4. A village was affected by drought. 
a. summer b. winter c. floods 

5. Remember that you are unique. 
a. special b. simple c. different 

d. pity 

d. famine 

d. common 

3. a) Use the prefixes with the base words given below to form new words and 
use them in sentences. [Prefixes are a ietter or letters we add to the 
beginning of a word to make a new one. The new words are not always 


/ tell 


X cycle 

M discipline 


Y regard 
\ fold 


\ justice 


b) il»e \hB euffiKss with tha words givvn b«lowto fofwi n«w words^ and use tham 
In s^nt^nces. [Suffixes are a letter or letters, we add to ttie end of » word to 
make a n^w onAj 

ferDcious \ 


ixitential V 


SUttfeSS \ 


a£ten(£h / 


reos&n / 


reflect / 


4. 51 mHar S^und in g Worde 
Fill In ihc blanks wtth tlw suitable wofd choosing rroin ihe p4>irs given In 

1 . The driver applied the hand lo stop ifie car (break, brake) 

2. The hungry Non went in search off ite . {pray, prey} 

3. The Is pleasant today, (whether, weather) 

4. Sundarattlho 

5. My unde 

caks yestBrrf^y. (hqte, whtote) 

a strange sound ^st night. (henJ, heard) 

5. Phi^ial verba 

A verb followed by an adverb or a prof3osltfon (also called a paiiide) beoomes 
phrasal verb. The particle artd the verb together (the phrasal verb) liave a meaning 
that is different frofn the meaning of the v^rb when It stands alone. EK3mp|<3: 'put' 
nrteans 'to place'. But add 'off to 'pLiT and what do you get? You get the phrasal verb 
■pu t off wh icfi means "to postpone'. You mu^ have a good knowledge of p hrasal verbs 
to understand mostof the writing you come across in English. 

Loek up a dictionary to find out the nmdnlng49 for tht fallowing pitmsal vart>s 
and use them in se^^tenees. 

* This is done for you 
bring up - roJ^e 
bring in - irwike, get 
bring about - cause 

The children must be brought up with bve and cane. 

South west monsoons will bring in lot of rains. 

We are trying lo being about a change in our education system. 

Now find out other ptirssak v«rb« from the lesson and use th^m Tn sentences of 
your own. 

G. Singular-plural 

[flj Ydm have lee rn* how a noun takes an "t" 
i *^b* tut Hb plural frDin. But what aboiH 
same urrusual words and fiyph^naEod 




■ana -In-law 

cornman deHn-&hlBf 





passers -fay 

liwpfl4^Dr- General 

1 niBpectoro - Gefieral 

"(toj Certain wor^le tipougfat Into English' 
ham other languages liave different plural 













c) Therr --^ -^m^ wrr^^s that reiii^in the eame in both lingular end plural form* 
Here are some of these words. 

sheep, soenery, &te:ionery, luggage, deer, swine, infiormalion, news. 

d) Ol¥e ttie plural foims of the folfowfng words. 

axis, analysis, thesis, basis, fungus, index, verteix, medium, phenomencn, formula 

Reading skill 

S k rmmln^ and Sc a nn h g : 

We skim a passage for gsneral infbnnatkjn. When we read the headlines of a 

newspaper to knoH^ gen^npl information, we ane skimmiryg. 

We scan a passage for spedfic infomnatk>n. For example, we scan &ie school nobce 
boana for the specific dat^ of Oijr examinaiion. 

Skim through the following passage and answer the questions that follow. 

An aldarly carpenter was about to retire. iHe told his employer-contractor of his 
plans to leave the house-buiiding business to live a more ieisureiy life with his wife and 
enjoy his extended family. He wouid miss the wages each week, but he wanted to 
retire. iHowever, the family was able to get by. The contractor was sorry to see his 
good worker go and asked If he could build Just one more house as a personal favour. 
The carpenter said, "Yes", but over a period of time It was easy to see that the 
carpenter's heart was not In his work. This resulted In producing a work of Infierlor 
quality, it was an unfortunate way to end a dedicated career 

When the carpenter finished his work, his employer came to Inspect the house. 
Then he handed the front-door key to the carpenter and said, "This Is your house, my 
gift to you'. The carpenter was shocked I What a shamel if he had known he was 
building his own house, he would have done it all so differently. So It Is with us. We 
build our lives, a day at a time, often putting less than our best into that building. Then, 
with a shock, we realise we have to live in the house we have built. If we could do It 
over, we would do it much differently .But, you cannot go back. You are the carpenter, 
and every day you hammer a nail, place a board, or erect a wall. Someone once said, 
'Life is a do-it-yourself project.' Your attitude, and the choices you make today, help 
build the 'house' you will live in tomorrow. Therefore, build wisely! 

1 ) What did the carpenter tell his employer and how did his employer feel about It? 

2) What was the attitude of the carpenter to his work? 

3) Why was the carpenter shocked to receive the house as a gift? 

4) What message do you get from this passage? 

5) Give a sulteble title to this passage. 


a. Read the following passage to revise the prepositions of time that are 
Indicated ir *"'*' '-"^^. 

It is good for children to get up early In the morning. When you get up early your 
mind Is fresh, relaxed and ready to receive. So, try to get up before 5 o' clock. For an 
hour you must study the subject you find difficult. Have your breakfast at 7 o' clock and 
start to your school. Your school starts at 8 a.m. So you should reach your school In 
time and not on time. It will be appreciated if you are attentive till/until the classes get 
over. You can always clarify your doubts during the class hours or even after. 
Whan/As soon as you get back home, you wash your face. As you have been 
working since moming you should relax for some time. 

b. Look at the following passage and understand the prepositions of time and 

The technocrat President, the missile man of India and a great visionary Dr. 
A. P. J. Abdul Kalam was bom on 1 5 October 1 931 at the island town of Rameshwaram 
on the east coast of Tamiinadu in india. iHe always got up early In the morning 
sometime between 4 a.m. and 5 a.m. before sunrise. He secured his engineering 
degree at MIT In Chennal and then Joined DRDO. His glorious moment came In 1 998 
when he conducted nuciear test at Pokhran in Rajastan. A true patriot Dr. Kaiam's 
pride In his country Is highly appreciable. In many of his speeches and writings his 
love for India Is transparent. 

3. Choose the appropriate prepositions of time and piace from the iist and fill In 
the blanks, (beforei after , during, since, tiii/untii, at, on, often, in, beiow, 

Sharad has been living New York 1990. 1 990 he was 

studying Punjab University. He iives an apartment with his wife 

and children. His apartment is the third floor. He does network a 

fanm. but is empioyed a business firm. This business firm is located 

a short distance from his house. Sharad has two friends, Surya and 

Vikram. They also stay the same building. Surya stays Sharad's 

apartment and Vikram's apartment is Sharad's. They meet , 

Sharad misses his parents who iive Chandigarh India. He visits 

them spring season. He has no plans to retum to India he retires 

from service. 

IV. Listening skiii 7^^ (^^ Listen to the foliowing passage as it is read by 

your teacher and answer the questions that foiiow. 

A son and his father were trekking on the mountains. His son suddeniy fell 
down, hurt himseif and screamed, 'Ah hi' To his surprise, the son heard the voice 
repeating, somewhere In the mountain, 'Ah hi' Curiously he yelled, 'Who are you?' He 
received the answer, "Who are you7'And then ha screamed to the mountain, 'i admire 
your The voice answered, "I admire yourAngered at the response, he screamed 
again, 'Coward!' He received the answer, 'Coward I' The son looked to his father and 
asked, "What's going on?' The father smiled and said, 'My son, pay attention.' This 
time the father screamed, 'You are a champlonl' The voice answered, "You are a 
champlonl'Theson was surprised, but did not understand. Then the father explained, 
'People call this ECHO. You can draw a lesson for life frem this. Lifie gives you back 
what you give it. Our life is simply a reflection of our actions. If you want for example 
more love in the worid, give more love to your fallow beings. One may compare life to 
a game of tennis. Those who serve the best are bound to win. 

Cornprshenelon qussf Idns 

1 . What were ^e fa^erand son doing? 

2. Why did the son scream? 

3. What made the son get angry? 

4. Doas this story deliver any message? If yes, whal m it? 

5. Supply a ^ultabla title for thg paesa^e. 

Speainng tkUl 


«u Prapara a spaach fof about two 

mlnutee on a pareon who has Inspired 
you the moat. You can use the following 
clues to prepare your speech, 
[ntraductksn of that person - his/har 
appearance - hie/her qualities Siai 
attracted you - hlfi/her gcsod habltB- 
hJs/her sfihleven^ents and contrlhutlons 
-how he/she has inspired you- what you wish to imbibe from him/her and hc3w. 

A few tfps for speaking 

Sland strfl^ght. SptJik Ipydly ofld tieor^, 
tCecfi to- \htr topic ba rut dfivfatL 
hhrtwte things ifl logical order, 
Li^okat the audeuiu. Maintoii^ eye cantocTj 


tK Recenty yoy attended the annual day function in your school. Vou were impressed 
by the motivating speech of the chief guest. Recoiled the points and share tham with 
your clas$maEe$. 


a. Arrange ttie following Jumbled words hi E^fiarcnt order |o form meanfngfuf 
sentences^ The first two sentences are done for you. 

1. that/ remember/ always /become /cark/youMhin king/ by/ big/ big., 
AJ^ays n&mamber that you can b&ooma bia by thinking tHg. 

2. goiXl/W try /Inculcate pec ple/wlth/ being/ habft/ by / posftlve. 

Tiy \a inculcate good habits by 
being with positive people. 

a. goals/high/set /flt/andAhem/Hme- 
frama/ In/the . 

4. you/that/ heading vreualke/ 
tcrwards/ are/your ^oal 

5. assura /of/ana/ you/ &uccas£ 
/your^&if/ach laving/ 

Q. Ihene/ls/wllL/a/thenQAMtom ^s^vay 


7p performyrajn/stoim/should/yDLj/cr 

P«ll0iv The CO [>ER to cnhofice fGur 
writfng skills What Is CObEU? 

C- Cfffkct idKiS. [frohfi various soyrceS' lib^'oryK 
' etuiyelapedia, ifiternet; teachers, n«wf|Sdfier5, 
' nu^flsi'hcSj ycuT ddicrs] 
\0^ Of^j^s^ th£ idtns. 

D- ^pare a noi/gh draft. 

E- f™li|flte md edit th* raugh draft, 

H- l^eWfc oftd ruvritc a fair dmft. 


b. Spot ths ftrrt^rc In *fie foilcTwIng Kenisncfts flFHi rewrite thwn comctly« 

1 . 1 met en Euupean. 

2. Geatha s father li a M.L-A. 

6. One of th^ boy locks hiapfiy. 

7. Wia bought kit of fiimhurBa . 

3. They am going Id Hlmalayaia. 

8, My father \& a honest man. 

4. R^ottii pHifiBrs mHc thafi tda. 

B. MiihBmatica are nny ^Mt^ aubjdd. 

5. A bunch of keya wene found in my cm 10, Ramu wanted m one rupee cdn. 

c. PunctLmtB the fblfowing ^antenceA. 

^ anand said aamihy you have done a good Job 

j^ children enjoyed wstj;^hing the film didnt they 

^ unless ha learns dnvlng|ohn cannot imprass his boss 

^ horw pJeasafit the weather Is today 

^ congraturatlons I h&ard you got a Jab Ih shgapore 

Lang Liege f uiictkint^ 

a. Translate the Ifmt psragraph of yo^jr proae fesson into Temil. 

b. Frame a disioguelbr ^e following situation. 

Your younger sister / brother has not done well in her/ his e^tamination. She / he 
ia upaet over her /his poor parfbrmance. Cheer her / him up wfth wonds of 

c. Lock at the picture and de$cr1be It In a paragraph. 



* Liiugh and be Merry 

John MaAefleM was bom in Ledbury in 187B in Herefordshire. After ifi 

urrhapp^ education at th& Kings school in Warwick,, he entered the merchanlnavy at 
the age of 16, dosortsd ship and became a vagrant in America. He returned to 
England in 1 S37 and sertied as a veraatJie writer. Afiaw of Inis earlier wcrics are 'SaJt 
Water Bailads', ' Manchester Guardian' and The Everiastinfl Mency'. in 1930 
Masafieid became poet iaureate. I^esefield diad in tlie ^ear 19fi7. 

Kn ttiis poam 'Laugh and be Merry' the poet wantB ue to be cheerfuE and 

en|oy oyr life to tha fullest He ai^ reminds us towands the end of poem thai we all 
are Eike tefnpofary guests who slay in the beauiilul in n fbr a wKiie. 

Uugh arid tm ttmv^, remwfibar, better the world with ^ ^onfli 

Bettef (Jie worfd with a blow in the leelih of a wrung. 

Laugh, for the time ts brief, a thread tha length of a span. 

Uijjgh md be pfuud to beiang tp the okf proyd pagBg-nt of man. 

bi1tw t<ttli«f a 

■rong- o^airist 

^kndld huinan 

jrhyvne - short 


Liugh and fe pnerry: raffiembofH '^^ okJan Mme. 
God mado Ho&von afid Earth for Joy Hg toa^ r* a r%ritep 
! tiTein, and fifled Ihsm full wffli the stmng fsd ^wlne of KIg mFrth 
Tba splandy joy ol U>6 sfa^. Iha joy oflhe eadti. 

So w€ must laugh and dnnk Troi^^^^HR»ue cyp of the sky, 
Join Wie jubrfani 5ong of IhegSPsrara swaepir^g by, 

Lnugh, 3r>d baltfe, and worl^^ and drink of the wine outpoure-d 
In the dear green earth, the sign of the Jay of ^e Lofd. 

juhnairt ~ 

swcEping by « 
moving 9*ntV 

okifl - ^FTiiior in 

rjuTZliTWn Til I 

Laugh and be merry ^eiri&r, iiJas 

— QuBfzlJng s^hiie \n U^e rOom^ of a b«-^Utlflj1 Intl, 

Crlad tii] the dancing stops, and the lilt of thie mysrc ends. 
Lauflh li1t Sie gajma Js ptayad; and be yoij many, mf friafids. 

A. Answer the fol [owing. 

1 . How can man make this world a better place to live in? 

2. What is man's span of life compared to? 

3. What did God feel when He created the earth? 

4. Who are the guests and where do they stay? 

5. What is called a beautiful inn? 

6. How should man treat his fellow beings? 

7. "Glad till the dancing stops, and the lilt of the music ends". Explain. 

8. So we must laugh and drink from the deep blue cup of the sky, - Mention the 
figure of speech. 

9. "Laugh till the game is played" - what is the game refered to here? 

10. Write an appreciation of the poem in about 100 words. 

B. Find out the rhyme scheme of the poem. 

Rhyme scheme is the pattern of rhyming lines in a stanza or poem. Some rhyme 
schemes apply to a single stanza while some others continue their pattern 
throughout an entire poem. Every rhyming word in a stanza is given a letter. And 
the letter is always in the lower case. For example: 

song - a wrong - a span - b man - b 

C. Figures of Speech 

Afigure of speech is an extraordinary mode of expression used in poetry to produce a 
greater effect. 

(1 ) Alliteration is the repetition of the same consonant sound in several words in 
the same line. 

"So we must laugh and drink from the deep blue cup of the sky, 

Join the jubilant song of the great stars sweeping by" 

'Drink - deep' and 'join - jubilant' are alliterated words. 

In the first line, 161 is repeated (drink-deep), and in the second line /j/ is 

repeated Qoin-jubilant). 

Find out two more instances of alliteration in the poem. 

(2) Simile is a comparison made between two objects of different kinds which 
have some resemblance. A simile is usually introduced by a word of 
comparison such as -like, so, as. as... so. 

(3) Metaphor is a condensed or an implied simile. 

"Laugh till the game is played "- Metaphor is used here. Life is 

compared to a game. When we say "Life is like a game", then it is a simile. 


A Man Who Had No Eyes 

A beggar was coming down Ihe avenue just as Mr. 
Pardons emerged from his hotel. He waa a blind beggar. 
carrying the traditional battarod can, and thumping hiB way 
before him with the dauttous, half-ftirth^ efTortof the^tghtlesa. 

hte WW a fth^ggy, thick-necked fellow; hl& coat wa& 
grsasy about the lapels and pockets, ard his hand splayed 
over the oane's c?Dok with a futile sort of clinging. He wore a 
black pouch s^ung over his shoulder. Apparently he had 

something to sell. 

The air waa rich with aprii^; tun was wann and yellowed or the aaphaH Mr. 

Parsons, standfng there in front of his hotel and noting the dack-clack approach of the 
aightlesR man, fielta sudden and foal is h sort of pity tbr all blind creatures. And, thQugtit 
h^r. Parsons, he was very glad to be alive. Atew years ago he had t>een little more than 
a skilled laborer; now he wag successtjl. respected, admired.. h Insurance.H- And he 
had don6 it alone, unaided, stnjggling beneath handicapa... And ha was still young. 
The blue air of spring, fresh from its memories of wirK^ pools and lush shmtibefy, 
could thrill him with eagerness. 

He bok a atep fbtward juat ^a the tap-tapping blind man paaaed him by. 
Quickly the shabby fellow turned. Uaten guv'mr Just a minLite of your time.' Mr. 
PBrsons said, "ft's late. I have an appoinirnant Do you want rne to give you 
something?'" "I ain't no beggar, gu/nor. You betl ainl I got a handy little article hflrs" 
he fumbled a small artide into Mr. Parsons' hand ^ "that I sail. One buck. Best 
cigarette lighter made' Mr. Parsons stood there, somCMfhat annoyed and 
embamassed. He was a handsome figure with his ImmMculata grey suitand grey hat. 
Of cDurse, the man with the cigarette lighter cquld ngrtaee him.,. ■But I doo't smokBi" 
he said. "Listen. I bet you know plenty people who smoke. Nice little present," 
vvheedled the man. "And, mtate^, you wouldn't mind helping a poor guy out?" He 
clung to Mr. Parsons^ sleeve. 

battered - worn out 
iJi^^gy- hairy 
Imnmajlartft - cJeari end 

wheeled * per^vi'sded 

Mr. Parsons sig?>sd andfolt in his veal pocket. Hebrou^ 

out two half dollars and pressed them Into the man's hand. 
"Certainly I'll help yqu put. As you say, I can give it to 
someone. Maybe the elevator boy would --' He hesitated, 
not wishing to tse tMori*h and InquifiiHve. even with a 
blind peddler. 'Have you lost your sight entirely?" 


TTie shabby man pocRetsd the two half dollars. "Fourt^in years, guv'nor.' 
Then he added with an insane sort of pride: "Westbury, sir, I was one of 'em." 
"We&tbury," n^p&ated Mr. P^rson^. "Ah /es. Th^ chemical fexpEosion . . . the papers 
havenl mentbned il for years. But at tbe time it was supposed to be one of the 
greatest d Isasters In— " They Ve all forgot about It." 

The fe^lciw shifted hi$ feet wearily. "I tell you, guVnor, e man who wes in It don't 
ftorget about it. Last ttiing I ever S3W was C shop going up in one grand smudge, and 
that damn gas pouring In at all the busted windows/ Mr. Parsons coughed. But Ihe 
blirid peddler was c;aught up wHh tiie train of his om dramaiUc r^mlnrscance. And. 
also, hve was thinking tliat there might be more half ddlar^ln Mr Parsons' pocket. 

"Just Ihink about it, guv'nor. There was a hur>dred and eight people killed, 
about two hundred injured, and over fifty of tfiem lost their eyes. BIfnd as bats/ He 
groped forward until his dirty hand rested against Mr. Parson$^ OOat, "I tall you $ir, 
there wasn*t nothing worse than that m the war. If I had lost my eyes in the war, okay. I 
would have been well took care of. But, I was just a worker, working tor what was In It. 
And J got it. Ygu'n& damn right I got it, while the capitalists wi^re making th^ir dough! 
They was insured, don't woFry about tKal. They — " ''Insured,'' repeated his listener. 
■Yes, that's what I sell, — ■ Tou want lo know how I lost my eyes?" cried the man. 
"Weil, here it is!** His words fell with the bitter and studied drema of a story often told 
and told for money. "I was there in C shop, last of all the folks rushin'out. 

Out in the a ir there was a cha nee, eve n with build ings explod ing right and left. A 
lot of guys made it safe out the door and got away. And just wh>en I was about tl^re, 
crawling abng between those big vets, a guy behind me grabs my log. He seys, let 
me past, you — ! Maybe he was nuts. I dunno. I try to forgive him in my heart, guv'nor. 
But he was bigger than mo. He htauia ma back and dimbs right over mel Trampl^^ me 
into the diirt. And tie gets out, and Hie there with all that poison gas poufing down on all 
sides of me, and flame and stuff , . / He swallowed —a sEudied sob—and stood 

He could imagine the next word$: Tough fuck, mymsn. D&mned fough fuck. 

Now i want to —"That's the story, guv'nor." line spring wind shriHed past them, damp 
and cfuiverlng. Not quite/ sakj Mr. Parsons. Thbe blind peddiar shivered crazity. "Not 
quite? What do you mean, you — ?" 

Tho story la true," Mr. Parsons said, "except that it wa$ 
the other way around." ''Other way around?*" He croaked 
unamiably "Say, guvnor—' "I was in G shop/ said Mr. 
Parsons, "It was tbe other way around. You were the fellow 
who hauled back on me and climbed over me. You were bigger 
tb&n I was, Markwardt." 


reminiscenice ■ 

trdiflple- walkover 
quivering - jhoNing 

fiendish - wicked 
stare - look fixedly 

The blind man stood for a long time, swallowing hoarsely. He gulped: 
"Parsons. By heaven. By heaven! I thought you—" And then he screamed fiendishly: 
"Yes. Maybe so. Maybe so. But I'm blindl I'm blind, and you've been standing there 
letting me spout to you, and laughing at me every minute of it! 
I'm blindl" People in the street turned to stare at him. "You got 
away but I'm blindl Do you hear? I'm—" "Well," said Mr. 
Parsons, don't make such a row about it, Markwardt. . . So am I ." 

L Comprehension Questions. 

1 . What do you think is the author's main purpose in writing this na^ative? 

2. Compare and contrast the character sketch of Mr. Parsons and Markwardt. 

3. The author uses a surprise ending. To what extent does this add to the 
effectiveness of the narrative? 

4. Which man originally seemed to deserve our sympathy? Why/How do our 
sympathetic feelings towards this character change? 

5. How do you view a differently - abled person seeking your sympathy? 

II. Arrange the following Jumbled sentences In coherent order to make a 

1 . The beggar wanted to extract more money using his handicap. 
2.. M:r. Parsons purchased the article to help the beggar out. 

3. A beggar came down the avenue to sell some article. 

4. The beggar fumbled the article into Mr. Parsons' hand. 

5. Mir. Parsons pitied the blind beggar. 

III. Complete the sentences choosing the nght options. 

1 . Mr. Parsons was standing in front of a . 

a. house b. hotel c. park 

2. The beggar tried to sell a to Mr. Parsons. 

a. cigar packet b. ashtray c. cigarette lighter 

3. Mr. Parsons paid dollars to the beggar. 

a. two half b. two c. three half 

4. Mr. Parsons wanted to give the article to . 

a. his friend b. his servant c. the beggar 

5. Mr. Parsons and Markwadt lost their vision in a 

a. fire accident b. chemical explosion c. road mishap 

d. theatre 

d. match box 

d. three 

d. the elevator boy 

d. bomb blast 




Warming Up 

fidki Tells Her Tale 

W© hjHtf^ someone 

You ha^ heard the cH.., 
ofhir^fe, Ypu Havo heard the 
cry of anknafe. "Vbu fiave 
hsanJIt)© sounds of movingjf 
buB^^/ tmin$ and otti^f 
viDliicks. You hsft^ N 
the sounds of ruffffng wind , 
and the running river^ Hhv^ 
you ever heanJ of a flower or 

speaking? YpU only l&ef 
theij presence In ofrier ways - 
-$fgihl, Ecenlanid the fclkig. 

tnfenflon of aw&^efi1ng yoyr 

Senslbjiities. Her speech Is 
not a lamefit and it iis not an 
app^^l. Neither Is H a 
" Ulaiqt. Actua ily she feels 
[ Ibr you. She is ail 
mcem for you. She offers 
aii her bouniies with gre^l 
generosity. Cen you 9UOSS 
^0 she is? O^.youf re i|^t! 
" e Is WoCher Earth - fine 
iherof ali ilving crealufes! 
'Lors iistan lo what '^ha.l^ 
hastosafv! ] 

I'm Gara, th b pe rscrn ifi cation of thfl pri m nd lal mother Earth . I am known by 
m any na m es in d ifTerent ia ng uages an d in d iffensnt piaces. Th e Greeks cai i me Ga ia , 
the indians caii me Bhoomi Matha and the English caii me Earth, i am a huge haii in 
Kpace spinning at a rapid pace whiie revoiving round the Sun. Do you know hiow old I 
am? I was a part of th© sun, miiiions of year^ ago. Foilowlng the big bang that 
oecumed in the cosmos, t W sp^tt 

\t^ the cariyyo^rsof trvy llf^r l^as a land mass caiiod 
Pangea and a big water mass caiied Panthalassa, which 
covers two-thinds of my surface. Due to graivity, i am able to 
ho id everything in its place! i am the oniy iife supporting 
pianet in the universe. Sdentista are peering through their 
fcei escapes even as i am speaking; checking to see whether 
there is any other pianet with life in it. Research is stiil on! in 
the beginning when there were just plants growing and 
a n ima is wa ndering al i over me , i ife was ve ry peaceful . Th ero 
esdsted a naturai rhythm that bound the entire species of iife. 
There was peace and there was abundancs, assurjirgthe survivai of every creatui^. 

I Whpl^Sfli^i? 

Z what arc iht athtr JvifKi gtvwi 

to her? 

3. What is Pw^gita and PonthaliaSK^ 

L 1 


obLmdaf^t* - pi tnty 

Of asurse, [ was very happ^ when man arrived. I waa praud that a superior 
OBatura had come to prutact ind cam fbr m«. He not cnly admired me but also 
worshipped nne with utmost reverence. Even when your tribe increased, ] had no 
pix>i:^eiri because the ecosystem was still woil-ba lanced and Intact. I ha'^^ a large 
liearl- large snough to accommodate all of you. However when you became greedy 
and under the pretext of development expioited all the naturai resources 
indiscriminataiy, my troubie begen. I am deeply conc&med about !he way nrry 
resou rces a re bai ng ravaged . You do not repien ish what you consume. 

You aJJ Icnow \t Is getting hotter by the day and as a result my gJaciers are melting,, 
my fei^^its bunding, my rivers drying up and my animals dying. You 
are indiffierent to yourown adtk^ie. Vou have aiaotumed a deaf ear to 
the cfy of my creatures. Where have your warmth and your love for 
nature disappaared? 


You read ths n^wspap^r^ and journals and 

watch (foctrmentaTfcs about environmental pollution. Many of the 

rarest est spedes have become extinct and some are on the verge of 

extinction! Who is to be held responsible for this pathetic state of 

affairs? The ozone gas that acts like a Danopy^ protecting you all fpom 

Iha hanmfui ultra-vioiat rays of th a sun is dapiatjng. Tha uaa of aarosoi 

spfKys has led to the increase of CFC content in the atmosphere and has enDded the 

QZDne T.ayeratthe paies. A^i a. neesuit, an expanding hole has been created in the ozone 

3ay&r. Many deadly diseases such as cancer am caused diue to this damage. 

IWy forests are very innporitant for your survival. The 
tnaes bind the soil and pneserve it. They bring about rain filling 
up iakes, ponds and riv&rs. You cut down trBSS mindlessiy to 
meet your immediate needs. The act of deforestation has 
red u ced the fio rest a rea la a cons i da rsbia exte nt. Th e ani mal s 
which inhabited these forests have been rendered homeless. 

How are you piannfng to address these probfams? Do ymj thm$c ^at nature 
wi II rege no rmt« aJi by herse If? Are yo u g oi ng to tu m a bJind eye bo thas€ dangars? Ara 
you goJng ID surrender to tho circumstances in 


1, Hqw did &a\a fte1 wHe/i limn fitcppitcf 

into thft sctni.? 
Z, What was ^Jie foW out ol HWrt'i 


3. WhAft d'\d the. tnotfble be^mi^ 

4. Whflt is tKft rtsulf nf gbbol 


pvHKTEnce - great rtipEct 
«jeplDh' i^Si ^nf curly and 

flccomnwdtft* - fit f iinf [aFdiiB f af 
ravage - to osme grtuf dfun^^ 
r^plchJih - ta f fll up oq^lfk 
canopy - shtlter 
awikiiffBMi - fdf*r toy 

Don't you have the wrharawithal to bring b&ck Hie glorious pa$t? Nothing is 
ImpoBsible for you, but the choice Is yours. As a mother tt is my duty to warn you of tho 
Impending dangers of neglecting me. Euen your own scfsntlsts concur with my ulewfi. 
How can I put up with the sight of my own children being poisoned and their safety 
being threetened? You may be careless, byt how oan a mpther affofd to be 

You have to put a stop to thte si We fbryour own welfare. To begin with, f slian 
sug^fifit CHftain measures that ycu ca n easily implement In your everyday iifa . 

^ Use eDO-fHendly vehicles suoh as bIcycJes and solar cars. Rrefier public transport 

to private conveyance . Ado pt car poo li n g system . 
** Fie nt sapl i ngs to commemorflte any ce le b rati on . 
^ Choose b lo-deg reda b le pnaducts ove r synthetic ones. 
^ MaxiJinlse the use of natural light. Consen/e power by switching off 

aleotrioal and elactronicapplianc^s whan not in usa. 
^ Do not wasta watar. Harvest ^n watar. Recyda bathioom water Tor 


WFy dear Fittie dhlldron. I bve you so much as I iOH/ed youf paw>ts In the pasi 
Thal Is the reason I'm here, narrating my tale. Also I remind you of your responsibility 
of protecting your own sweet home - your only ahode in Ifie Immeime unlversel Seek 
bo restore tiijehamnony of the bygone days. 

Tm no! a mara ball of mud. watar aM mtnamls. \ too possass a bo<ly and 
mhxl, a heart and soul -just like ymi. It is you who keep me alive, i live In you; I live 
wi^yoki; iitveforyouj 

and wdtcf at honw? 

cunvncmoroti - to haiwur 
tht mtmory pf somMnt 

tk» you know? 

-ft ^ftfo-diveraity^ ConiwirTin^ m^ Nflture* - was the tkem* 

far the year 2010, 

^ How rfo pKif^k cdebrate that day? 

• AwflPftflftss walks • Sci*ntiftc fonmis 

• fl^eyde parades * Sretn tahcertJ 

• JrtM plant Ingj ■ Ckon-L^ campa^nc 

Remember the 3 Wn: 
Reduce, Recycle and 

Reu^e Resources. 


Afisw«r«ddn In d faantgraph of 100 worda: 

1 . MighHg ht the imporlarice of forest cortservation . 

2. L^st DUE the m^B^f^you Can implement in your daily lifa to protect your 



A. There ars dfETerencee between BrtlJsh EngliBh and Afnerican English Tfiese 

dHfvr«nc«£ could be grouped uncjar mo majar hsadln^e: Vocaducsry, Spelling end 



in Vocabulary 

DUTerenoes in Spelling 

British EngEi&h 

American English 

British English 

American English 








































^ p^rldlar 

B. Chaoee tha corrset synonym far rh» undarfinsd word rrom Iha opEiorifi gJven. 

1 . 1 am de^ly concerned about the way * 

a) wounded bjinlefesled cj worried d] affected 

2, The ozone gas acts like a c^npuy. p rotecting us, 
a) galaxy b) cloud cjvacuunn d) shelter 

3- it 1$ my duty tow/arn you of the Impending dangers, 

a ) eminent b) dominant c) promi nent d) imminent 
4. 1 shall suggest certain measures ....... 

a }ldessb)way$c:) problems d)ar^a$ 
5. Seek to restore the hamiony of iMlfiQBdsvs. 

a) previous b) present c) olden d) modem 

C- Choose thecorrecl antonym for ttie underlined word from the options given. 
1 . lam known by many names in differant langijaass. 

a)^lranga b) similar o) diverse d) popular 
2 my glaciers are rQelting . 

a) moving b)bra3ksng c)freezmg d] vanishing 

3. There existed a natural rhythm , 

a) artificial b)fake e J abnormal d) unpleasant 

4. I a stusadQE creatu re had come to protect me. 

ajgr^gter b)mediocfe c) minor d)infieirior 

5. Don't you have \Hq wh^^^owithal to bring back the glonpys pa&t? 
a)wonclorfiil b) graceful o)shamelijl d) dreadful 

We cams across the abbreviation CFC in Uie lesson. Abbreviations are shortened 
forms of words. The expansion oF CFC is Chloro Ruom Carbons. Let's krtow Hie 
oro&nizatiori$ dedicated la conaervatron pf Natui^ &f>d Wildlifa; 


ZSI - Zoptog ica i su rve^ of Ind ia 

QPM -Green Pesoe Movement 

Leam some more abbrevjationaand \h^\r expansions. 

WHO Wortd HeaWh Organisation. 
UNO Unlt^ Nations Organisation, 
GWG Common Weaith G^m^S 
WWW Worid Wide W#b 
ROI R^^rve Bank of indla 

NGO Non Governmental Organisation 
IAS Indian Administrative S&rviM 

BBC Britrgh Broadcasting CDrporallon 
UPSC Union Public Service Commtssion 
UGC Univofsity Granis Commission 

Expand the following abbreviations: 



[hiiams are expressFons tJiat give speciaf meanrngs to words. The iFterai meaning of 
individual words should not be taken fdf consideration. For example, we came across 
two idioms in the lesson: *tum a blind eye / deaf ear, meaning 'pretend to Ignore / to 
pretond not to notice',] Now locate the following idioms in the dictionary and find out 
th n mca n ings . Eg . ^On co in ^ bl tio moo n' m oa ns ^v^ry rare V- 
Mmtch the foUowing Idioms with their appropriate meanlngK. 

Q) eKagiQemte ^ pmblam / fnako &. big daal out of nottibng ' 

2. fool's orrand 

b) ina)w a no^ boglnmr^g 

^. iBJrring qb^ and ^jog& 

c) de everyiJiing posgi-ble 

4. lum Over a r^&w l&^f 

d) a rVultlass undQrl^kjng 

5. make a fnoLMitsh oijt of a molehill 

e) In big Irmible 

^, M Shp gr^55 gruw unifer one's feel 

1) anywh*3rB qn earth 

7. unt^ the sdfi 

@)raihiri|^ heavily 

fl. move heaven ard eajlh 

h) to be Itiankfijl for one's Tuck 

9. m deep waters 

1) not Id waste time by delayifig doing sofnethin^ 

\t}, iha^k u[1b'6 lueky $tare 

j3 gtop al tlw vary l>a^lfining 

L— _j 



Reading skill 

A. Collect some information on 'Acid Rain' and the 'Big Bang Theory'. Read it out to 
your classmates aloud . 

B. Read the given passage that has been scanned for note - maki ng and 

We need to use our energy sources wisely and economically and conserve 
as much of our energy resources as we can. How can we do this? 

Firstly, we must reduce our dependence on non-renewable resources. For 
example, can we design or invent vehicles that do not use petrol or diesel as fuel? If 
we can, then we reduce our consumption of petroleum. Many scientists and 
engineers are working on this idea. Can we use water and wind power, rather than 
diesel or petrol or coal power to generate electricity? 

Secondly, we must look for and use alternative fuels and sources. Rather than 
using coal, kerosene or cooking gas, can we use animal wastes or plant wastes? We 
have learnt to extract energy from animal wastes such as cow dung or plant wastes. 
One successful method is to ferment animal wastes inclosed containers and produce 
a gas called biogas, which is just as good as cooking gas. The waste from the biogas 
plant can be used as manure in fields and plantations. Asecond example is the use of 
windmills, where wind is used to turn a paddle wheel and to produce electricity or to lift 

Thirdly, we must make greater and cleverer use of the sun. The sun is a 
perennial source of light and heat for the earth, and it is absolutely free! If we could 
devise methods for capturing the heat and light from the sun and transforming it into 
electricity, mankind could benefit greatly. 

Note-making: Conservation of Energy 

A. How to conserve Energy? 

1 . use energy resources wisely and economically 

2. design vehicles not using diesel or petrol 

3. using water & wind power to generate electricity 

B. Alternative use of fuels 

1 . use of animal and plant waste 

2. production of biogas 3. windmills 

C. Use of Solar Energy 

1 . Sun - perennial source of light & heat 

2. transform into electricity 


ConMTvatlon of Enefgy 

We have to use energy sources wisely ertd eoommiral^ to conserve ttiem. 
Vahidds^ that do n Dt u$d petrol or di^sat can ba dasignad . Watar a nd wind powar can 
be used to generate electiidty. Eneigy can be produced frnm plant and animal 
wa^itje. Blogas can ba ij$ed for cooking. Electricity can be produced using windmills. 
The lliQht and heat of the sun can be converted into electridty. 

■Itles. I 

n of hliitsL Ml 

TI|U ftr BfTfHflBriEfrlg 

j^ Ut^d the pdS5£)gfi eor^Afultyr 

j^ Identify the k£y ^uitenccs and key wordj. 
^ Omit ^J!arr\p\eSr dnal^tl^ and iUufrmtf^iis 
j^ Write dufy main poinfs In the nocKrh d 
i^ Write the fair capy cind give a title, 


Hpi far fufe - iimIi^ 
^ R&qcf the pq$S4g£ eai<£fylly. 

>? Undtrlinft the key paints. 
^ Of|nnisc thfilti uildfcr SUbtl' 
-f' fiifwe t Ke po inrts in the form 
• OHirt EXDlTiplEi amd LiSe nbbrftvi 


Basic S &ntence Patterris 

You have already learnt the basic sentence pattems In your previous class. 
You ane familiar with the basic elements of a sentence - Subject, AAarb, Object, 

Mow we are going to introduce a new eleiTient into these patfeitia. It is called 
'Adjunct'. Adjunct is an adverts or an adverbial. It answers the questions 'When? 

Wliare? How? Why? Ncrmally an adjunct can come anywhere in a senianca - in Iha 
beg inning, at th c c nd or i n th c m idd Ic Adj u nets arc just additional u nits. Any number 
of adjuncts can be added to a sentence. Even wittwut adjuncts, what remains will still 
be a complete and meaningful sentence, 

^. 1. Thestaf3/fwfn|i;le/lntl>esky/atnlght, 
S V A A 

2, Man/huntS/animai^/ mercilessly. 

S V O A 

3, TbeEaHh/la/aball/lntheapace. 


4r Trees / g i ve / us y f m its / year after yea r, 

S V lO DO A 

6, Sdance / hS^ made i ma n*s life / comfortabte / these day^. 

S V O C A 

Br Due to gravity, /the Earth f cou Id hold / everythi ng , 
A S V O 

7. In this lessoRp/Gaia/ tells /man /her tale. 

A S V 10 DO 

8. Nowadays, /life /has become/ hectic. 

A S V C 

9. We /always /work/ hard. 
S A C A 

lO.Anjn's answer /is /almost /right 

11. The Americans /have sent /a rocket /to Mars. 

S V A 

12. That day,/ Priya/quici^iy/finished/ her dinner. 

A S A V 

Make sentences with the fol lowing patterns: 

1. S.V.O.A 2. A.S.V. 3. S.V.GA 4. A.S.V.I0.DO 

5. S.V.O.C.A 6. S.A.V.C. 7. A.S.V.0. 

Listening skill 

What Is a map and how Is It made? 

ListBn to thB t&aehBr and answer ths quBstions: 

Maps are accurate representations of a part^ or sometimes the whole, 
v"^' oflheearth's surface. They are made on a flat paper, parchment, doth 
or any material. Maps have been made since ancient times because 
they are a convenient way of sumn^rizlng information aboutanareaor 
the world In which we live. 

The eariiest known maps were made in ancient Babylon. The early Egyptians 
and Greeks also knew the art of map making. Gerhard Mercator Is the father of 
modem map making. 

It takes a skilled mathematician and an artist to create a precise map. The first 
step is to fix the latitudes and longitudes of the area to be napped. The land is 
surveyed using specialized Instruments. Known fixed points are then plotted on 
paper In a chosen scale and measured heights. The map maker then Alls In all the 
details of the land. Today sophisticated methods of surveying, aerial photography, 
satellite technology and computers make maps accurate and detailed, 

1 . Why are maps made? 

2. Who made the first map? 

3. Name the father of modem map maklr>g. 

4. How are maps created? 

5. IHoware modem maps made accurate and detailed? 

Speaking skill ^ ^ 

1. Group Activity 

Form small teams. You can choose your team mates. Instruct your team to coilectthe 

following details on their way back home from school. 

<=> List the things that they see on the street that cause environmental pollution. 

Of these, make out the things that can be recycled. 
i=> What suggestions you would make to the residents to keep their street dean? 
>=> What are the sources of help you would seek to keep you r vil lage/town clean? 
^ Compile the details gathered in your respective teams. Prepare a report and 

present it to the class. 

2. Every one of us should play a part in protecting the environment. One way is by 
reducing the amount of njbbish we generate at home and at school. Join your groups, 
discuss and come out with suggestions on how we could implement the 
environmental principles of 3R'sefTectiveiy. The group leaders will speak to the whole 
class to create awareness. 

3. Pal rand Share: 

Choose a partner of your choice. Discuss with him/her about the advantages of rural 
life over urban life. 

Writing skill 

1 . Rearrange the following sentences in logical ordertomakea 
meaningful paragraph: 

• When pollution occurs the atmosphere becomes contaminated. 

• Pollution is the making of air, water or soil impure with harmful substances. 
^ OthenA^ise it will pose a serious threat to human health. 

• It is the result of the increase in population. 

^ Measures should be taken to control pollution. 

2. You have listened to Gala's story - her plight and concem. If s high time you wrote a 
letter to your Mother Earth. In that letter, comfort her and assure her that you'll take 
good care of her from now on. 

Language Focus / Functions: \^ 

1 . Translate the passage you have aranged in logical order underwriting skill into 

2. Make notes and summarise the following passage. You have seen a model of that 
exercise under reading exercise. 

I 25 I 

Oils are of three main kinds -vegetable, animal and minerai oii. Vegetable oii 
is obtained from squeezing oii seeds. Minerai oii is pumped out from deep under the 
earth. Animai oil is got from the fat of animais. To extract vegetable oil, the dried oii 
seeds are put in the crushing machine and oil is squeezed out and collected. We get 
oil cake as residue. The oil cake is used as animal feed. 

Mineral oil is pumped out by digging oil wells. These are found deep below the 
ground, i-ioies are drilled and oil is pumped out or forced out. The cmde oil is a 
source of many useful things. We get kerosene, petrol and diesel out of crude oil. We 
also get oil from fishes like the whale shark. When we cut out their blubber and melt it, 
we get these oils. 

We use most of the vegetable oils for cooking. Mineral oils are mainly used as 
fuel. Animal oils are used as medicine. We give shark liver oil to weak children. 
Neem oil, lime oil and sandalwood oil also have medicinal value. They keep our skin 
healthy. We make soaps out of these oils. 

Weekend Activities: Project Work. 

1 . A Poster is a notice or advertisement for display usually stuck on a 
wall. It may have a simple picture or painting or photograph or 
cartoon that brings out the idea in a visual way with catchy captions / 
slogans. Prepare wall posters to promote the following. Display them 
on school notice-boards: 

a) Save Trees - Do not take hard copies, when not really needed. 

b) Carbon footprints are road to environmental destruction. 

c) Go the eco-friendly way: Avoid use of plastics 

2. The Nature at times bursts out in fury. It results in Natural Disasters. Fill in the 
empty boxes to name a few of them. 

F o s 






D O G T 

T E R 

3. You may visit the following websites to leam more about bio-diversity. 
[Recommended by the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India] 


^ http://zslenvls.nlc.ln , , 




li indy iiarrtfld lA fun I 

Khsfil Gft3rann8&3 - 1931] bom m Lebanon, was a poflt, ptiifosopher and 
artisl Hlg boo Kb have gained popularity in the western worW, with 'The Pmpiief as 
pnabsbly tho best known wDrk of h\^. Mo8^ of his works convey the timoie^ 
Uhlvaraal truths , an d of man's Inhumanly Id man. 


The poem, 'Earth', a beautiful tribtfleto Ihe Earth, istaksn froma colEaction of 
poems a<^ e^aya omttted Ibe Eye of Eh& Prophet', 

How beautiful you are, Earih, and how subllmef 

How perfect your obediance to the tight and how noble is your s u b m issi on to th e Bun . 

I have walked over your plains, 

I have citmbed your stony mountains 

I have descended into your valleys; 

I have entered into your caves. 

On the plains I have discovered your dreams. 

On ^e mountains I have admired ^ur splendid presence 

And in the valleys I have observed your tranquility^ 

In the caves I have touched v^ur mysteries. 

^^^K ij^^^ 

Yoy are the moulh and ffps of Etemrtyp 
The strings and fingers of Time, 
The mystery and soluUcn of life. 
How generous you ana. Earth, and 
How strong is your yearning for 
Your children lost between 
That which thpy have attainod 
And that which thoy could not Obtain 

VVe pieroe your bosom with swonds and speara^ 
And you dress our wounds with oil snd balsam 
We plant your fields with skulls and bones. 
And fnim them you rear cypress and willow trees, 
VVe empty our wastes in your bosom, and ypu fiJJ 
Our threshing floors with wheat sheaves, 
And our winepresses with gtapes. 

subUntc - grarud and great 

sufamlss^on - hLmblftnass 

splendid - magnificent 

trafiqurilty^ ^ pcacefuFrvess 

etcmrty - tm endJess trme 

myffviY " difficult 15 cXpkl^^ gi* 

uixtersta nd 

^ri^rnin^ - Ipnging, qremi defir^-^ 

bourn. - chtst at iieort 

baboiA - Q pln^DiTt-smel^ingi Hqdd or 

r«3in-iikA sijbatance obtoiiwd from 

Certain trees. 

shMwes - a bundte of corn 

dEsc«riiiTi4iTt - realisotion 

Wb extract ycHjr elements to maite 

Cannons and bombs but out oi 

Our elements you create lilies arrd roses 

How patient you arc Earth, and how merciful f 

Are you an alom of dost r^is&d by 

The fe&t of God whe-n He joumey&d from 

The £ast to the West of the Universe? 

Who afe you. Earth, and what are you? 

You are "I", Earth! 

You are my sight and my discernment 

You are my knowledge and my dream 

You are my hunger and my thirst. 

You are my sorrofw and my ioy^ 

You are the beauly that liv^ In my eyes 

The longlnrg in my heart, uhe evertasting life in 

nry souir 

You are T Earth. 

Had it not taeen for my being, 

You would not have been I 

FIgur&s dI Spiueh^ 

1. 'You are the n>outh and lips of Eternity. 
The strings and fingers of Time," 

The fvgureof speech used here is PBrsonificatlnn Person IfECsdon attributes life to 
Inanimate objects or abstract qualities. The words 'Etemlty and Hlme' are 
personified here. Usually Ihe personified words be^ in w^th ecapltal letter. 

L Read !fie poem ancf then answer ni« folio wing questloffs: 

1 . What do the vark>us physical feafturesofthe Earth reveal to the poet? 

Z. Why is the poel apologetic to the Earth? Pick out the lines that indicate this, 

3. Why does the poel call the Earth 'mercifur? 

4. In what ways does the Eartii repay man for all his ill- treatment? 

5. Write the substance of Etie poem in aboul 100 words. 

6. "You are "I" Earth." - Why does the poet conclude that Man and the Earth are 
one and ^e same entity? (100 words) 


Amrita Devi - The ©yardian Angel of Woods 

Thahur Sum! Smgh, of Kharda Diikana, a small eslals in Jodhpur-Pargana, 
was granted the estate of Khejarli \n the s^me pargana by Maharaja Abhai Singh of 
Jodhpyr In 17ZB AD and he be[:3mft the first Thakur cf Khejardi". The name of tbe 
village KhejaHl or KhejardI (26 Km Soyth East of the city of Jodhpur in Rajasthan) is 

derived ftom the Khejri trees which wefe in abyndanoe In the villaise. 

ft WiSs a Tuesday, black Tuesday in Khejarxli, the IQth day of the bright Ibrtnight 
oi September in 1730 A.D. Amrita Devi, a mother of three -Asu, Ratni and Bhagubai - 
was at h ama with her da ug hters . Suddenly she cama to know thai G Iridhar Bhandari, 
the Minister in Abb^i Singh's Court, had come to the villago, Hig mission was to Cut 
down Khejji trees to burn lime for the construction of a new palace tior the king. 

Amri ta Devi protested the felffng of Inees saying H was 
against thei r rel ig io us bell ef . Sh e sal d , "If a tree is saved even 
at the cost of one's head, it is worth it ". She hugged the tree. 
5he meant what she ssid and «ha did what she meant, The 
axes rtfhich ware brought to cut the trc&s sovcrod her head- 
Tha three daughters stood undaunted. They offered their 
heads a s wel I , a nd m et with the sa me en d . 

Soon the news spread like wildfine. The king's mpn continLied 
with their felling spree. Bishnoi cximmunlty's men, women and 
ch i Id re n from 83 vil lages ca me to stdp cutti ng down the trees . They 
he Id fast, hugged th & tr^es an d g ot kj lied In all 363 vil lagers - young 
and old, men and women, mamed and unmarried, rich and poor - 
had already become martyrs. The king reproached the minigtef tbf 
the slowness of work and declining load of wood everyday. The chief 
or the wood cutters explained the ^tiange love of the people to tree$ 
and how smilingly they gave up their lives .He explained that their axe^ have been 
tainted by human bloDd and they were weary of killing so many ^ a few treofi. He 
explained thgt they could not go on making human sactificies Ibr fi^lling wood fbf the 
ki ng 's palace . He asked the king to provi de a sol ution. 

Hearing the courage of the B^hnoi Community, the king Immediatety oniered 
to stop the felling of trees. He met the tribal chief in person ar>d 3pologb^ for the 
mrsteke committed by his official s .The tribal chief casually told the king that his tribe 
did its duty to th9 IH9- sustaining hofy traes. Apparentty moved by the uncomplaining 
f^lure of Simple and kind-hearted people, the king issy<^ a royal decree, engraved In 
a copperplate ordering the to II owing: 




^ AN ftil'm^ af grefcn tre£5 ond 
huntit^ of ahjmals within tke 
revenue boundaries af ii^hnoi 
Vifh^e wosstHttty prohibited. 

^ If by mistake ^ny indjvidu^f 
violoted this Qrdkr, he would be 
prosecuted by the state and a severe 
penaity mpt^se-6 on the offender*. 

js Evefi the member's af ruJing f omfly 

emust not ^hoot aniiTHils in or even 
near tlie ifshnoi vJiloge. 

Later the ''Kl^eja^^^ Massacre" found mention In the 'Annats and Antiquities qf 
R8j&sth3n\ a famous 1 Sth century two volume work by Colonel James. Today the 

anniversary of the ma&sacfe Is obsaved each year at the village which has now 

become an important tourist spot. 

What Amrite Devi bM her daughLerg did in Khejardli had beconne a movement 

- the Chipko Movomont (Tnco-hugglng movcmont) in the 19^08 In the Garhwel 
Himalayas and in 1 974 in Chamoli Diatrlotboth In Uttarkhand. 

The Chipko Movement, though pn manly a livelihood movement na(ther than a 
^rast conservation movement, went on to bacome e rallying point for many future 
envirionnn€ntali$ts and environmental movements the world OV^r and C^dted B. 
precedent for n on -vi ol e nt protests. This movement which I nsplred many eoo groups 
hefped in slowing down the rapid defiarestalioa ekpos^ vested interests, Incf^aod 
ecological awareness, and demonstrated the viability of people power. Above all it 
stirred up the existing civil society in India as never t^lbre. The society started taking 
a look at the tribal and niarcinali^d people and their Issues or liv^ihood Itom a new 

ShJwB. Putlith&d ty Z^d Book i§M - l&BS 6a€^m$$ p.6r. Kh^f^fi} MttSMAcm in i7m- 
BtuinM^M Stmdan^, AiMndSmilmr^ NwwDmlM Mt- ^ 2IK)t. 

I. Let's answer the following: 

1. WhowasthefirstThakurofKhejardf? 

2. WhereisthetribalvillageofKhejarlilocated? 

3. What was that village named after? 

4. Why didn'tAmrita Devi allowthe king's men to cut trees? 

5. Whatwas the mission of GiridharBhandari? 

6. What is a tree worthy of? 

7. How did the people of Bish noi community try to save the trees? 

8. What did the king"s men become tired of? 

9. What did the king's royal decree proclaim? 

10. Which incidenttriggered the Chipko Movement? 

11. Now rearrange the following sentences to get the summary of the story of 
Amrita Devi's sacrifice. 

a. Her three daughters also gave their life. 

b . The king of Jod hpur sent his men to cut down Khejari trees in the villages . 

c. Amrita Devi lived in Khejarii with herthree daughters. 

d. He wanted to build a new palace 

e. Amrita Devi did not allow the men to cut trees 

f. She hugged the tree and offered her head instead. 

g. The king's men cut Amrita Devi's head. 

III. Complete the sentences choosing the right options: 

1 . The Khejri trees were cut down for the construction of . 

a. fort b. hospital c. palace d. choultry 

2. September 10, 1730 A.D was considered a black Tuesday because 

a. Amrita Devi and her daughters lost their lives 

b. the Khejri trees were destroyed in wild fire 

c. the minister arrested the tribal chief 

d. the village was hit by a tidal wave 

3. Amrita Devi objected to the cutting of Khejri trees as it was against their 

a. chiefs order b. king's order c. religious belief d. sentiments 

4. Colonel James had made a mention of the in his book. 

a. Chipko Movement b. Bishnoi community 

c.Abhai Singh's decree d. Khejarii Massacre 

5. The Chipko Movement was started in in Chamoll District. 

a. 1970 b.1972 c.1974 d.1976 


Warming up 

The Will to Wfn 

5ww J+itfig^ insf i« i^ffi*utt bvt tithing \s Itr^oAs^ih 

Dtscus^ these questions in the ciass. 

3 Are you in a girls' scIiddI / hays' school or in a mlKed schoal? 

O Do you have , I n your vill age ] town , g iris ga ing to h ig h schools? 

n Do you know girlfi who have stopped going to school? 

3 Have you ever helped a giri continue herschooling? 

O What do g irig in yc u r place do aft^ r dropping out of schoor? 

Read tfjts inspiring sccxyunt of an mdividuaf 

j-low pleasan>t ^ ifito aee girls in §mups along the street carrying school hags- 
chatting, giggling and pulling each other's plait, adjusting the flowers on their hair, 
picking up the fallen flower though it is half dry to place it on the plait again and some 
plaiting their hairon the way to schoaL^, 

Some girl^ ane very serious looking. They won't talk Id others-even when in a 
QrtMJpu II is hard to pull them out of their shells and involve them in conversation. Who 
knows what ^Jls th em? 

So m& will carry on with a smi Is unmindful of whatever burdens them. They get 
along well with others. They keep the umbrella of prudence open and allow the rain of 
crltlciGm to pass by. They are star performeral Here i& a real life story of one such 
"^ri 9Ur" -Anita Khushwaha^ 

Anita lives in Bochacha village \n Muzaffarpur Distriet in Bihar She lives with 
her pf3 rents and two younger brothers, LH^ Was not a bed of inses for Anita during her 
Ghildhiood. How could it be? She was bom In a poor family in a village in Bihar which is 
saddened both by Floods and drought. Moreover parents in villages did not send their 
da uq ht&rs to school - And An Ita's pa rents we re n o differe nt f no m othe r pa rents . 

irom thm mart ilmMitvMntMgad communitiaM icnua fhm Na/thvn alttma who. 
thlfKH^t* *tt»PrtJrtff C<fuC*1^rt, A^vtf HW#iT*fl«* tO *rta*Jt (fr* *h*Cfc*M ftf tOC^ 
acGitamlc Gonttntnta ta maim 3 mussmM* of thmtr tt^ma MndtMcommamlfaufffci^irL 
Thaaa young wumAn luva gnawm fa bmcoirw rata modais tn thaireommunMmM, wfui 
^rwplrv yvufrgmi gIrfM to ga to vcAoo^ antt corrUnuB thoJr aduimfian. Tiny fWMi 
Metectsd pnaf^MsmnM frum Ifm moai sorw^ntnutml au^ mm ^^^^^^^^^_ 

What dotA tHc Sentence 

*Lif fi was fidt a bed uf ra j«j 

Mfuhmiy, tiMM-kfNtpfng, Mwmp mMnag&msnt. • Dili - q\vei pain. 

oftan tntafing what hit tmSit^otftity bam\ a 

mMii'M doniMltL 



car*, f ffr f trtyre. 


Tlicxjsh Anita wa nted to go to school , it remai ned a dista nl dream . She oould r\l 
have th^ luxury of attending even the ne^resi: vflkge school. Then what would $he do 
the whole day? What else hut mindfng the goats that were grazing [ Day dreannlngi 
Poor Anital Sho often thought, "Am I destined: to be like chjs rhroughout rny life?" This 
was the rtagging question that imtibled her like a dragon darting oiJt of darkness. 
"Won't I ever see freedom and the bright Ughtof the dawn?" 

And the day dawned f It had tof One day Anita with all her Inqulslttveness 

altered the village school. She sat behind (ha children in a class. She was ihrili&d. 
Once she entered the school, there was no tooking back. Anita was determtned not to 
follow the herd. She wanted to t>e different from the 'happy at home' girls who always 
fan errands, did the daily chores and were resigned to their tate. 

She gathered elf courage to speak her mind to her parents. In villages, it is 

considered an unruly behaviour to speak against the parents. A gross disobediencef 
Sin-ratherl Yet Anita begged, pleaded, and, per$4jaded her parents. One of the school 
teachers convinced Anita's parents. Finally Anita won herparenl's approval. 

Getting high marks was not An ita's a im' nor was it her goal . All that she wanted 
waste get education. And she successfully completed hersE^ooling and entered a 
college. Her parents co-operated with her. They did not trouble her with grazing the 
goats or with the household chores. She took evening dasses for the school children 
and earned some money. This helped her to pay the college fees. Some older boys In 
the viiiagedid what a(i they could do to stop the children from her evening classes. But 
that did riot vtork for long. Children c^me running to their bvpng Anita Dhidhi's 

The reat dimax in her story was on the day when she noticed the litchi trees in full 
blODm prtd hundreds of honey bees hovehng around. An idea flashad. "Why cant I do 
the bee - keeping. seFI honey and m^ake money?". She attended the course run by the 
government on bee - keeping. With the 5000 njpees she saved from tine evening 
clas$ earnings, she w^s able to btiy two bo^es fat 4000 aipees fbr rearing the fc>ee$. 
She spent the rest of the money on buying sugar to make synjp for the bees and 
cleaning the bee hives. That was in a September. By December she had to double the 
number of boxes because the winged visitors' doubled their numbers. She was 
delighted, 1 ^^ 

distfiud - be fixed for a 

jAqul^it^vcfic^ - eo^£r-Jy 
5«ekm9 knowled^ 
chortt- r^utlnAor bQf*lngtflsk 
bhidtii-ddersistei- (Hindi) 

!, Wlwtwflsthe nfflggfngipLJftstJfln \r\ Anitn'smlnd? 

2. Do yeu think AniTQWos "unruly' m d*So bey [119 Ker parents? 

3. Wiiq helped Anita ts wm tuer parent ' 5 o^prflval? 

4. V¥hdtw<uherg«ilmselioaJ7 

5. Wtiich isttie tumiJTgp&int \n Af]ii^' s \if^7 

6. Wlu one ?lie 'ringed vi3it»-i£7 


She continued to leam the techniques of bee - keeping. Often ^^W 
sfre got sturg by the bees. Her face and hands got swollen. She was W iJ 
rid iCii led for trying her hand at bee - keeping , a doma i n pred omi na ntly 
held by men. UndBtsrred by the pain and inconveniences, she 
continu&d to perfect the art of bee - keeping. Now she wants to 
be CO me a wholesa le trader of honey so that she can procu re honey frofn her villagers 
for the corned price. She cycles her wey to attend many villega meetings. Because of 
Anita, the endre village is pnDgressing. Isn^tAni^ really a 'Giri Star^? In fact sl^ is the 
'Morning Star' leading the villagers from darlcness to light. Her 
bTcycle moves on and on and on. . . and the entire village too. 

R«ed Anitas story ^taFn and attswor these q wstlons : 

1. DoesAnila use hereducation for earning for herself? 

2. Do you thrn k An ita can do more for her vi I lege? If yes< what 

3. Imagine yoursetf to be Anita. Could you suggest some plans 
lo help your village? 


ridfculc - mAl<£ f Uft ttf. 
tmcj^tttivcd - mi 
topped fay ffllEtreSn 

prtiCMre-cdliy::?, get 

A. Choose the appropr^te syrronyms from the four aJtematives 

1. inquisitive 

(a) willing (b) curious (c) meek (d) submissive 

2. procure 

[a ) collect (b) d i spose (c) take (d ) sell 

3. approval 

(a) opinion (b) displeasure (c) denial (d) consent 

4. chores 

(a) song {b) hymn (c) lesson (d) routine 

5. pFead 

(a) request (b) argue (c) order (d) forgive 

B. Choose the oppropnate Antonyms from t^e four aJtematives 
1. freedom 

(b) bondage 

{a] liberty 

2. drought 

(a) muddy 

3. prudence 

{a) JrLtelligence 

4. unruly 

(a) arrogant 

5. success 

{a) failure 

{b) barren 
(b) carelessness 
{b) haughty 
{b) dejection 

(c) slavery 
(c) pride 

(d) empowerment 
(d) flood 
(d) wisdom 

(c) disciplined (d) [ndiscrplined 
(c) achievement (d) victory 


C. What would the word a 'narrow', 'nlandar', Ittngttiin" and 'dtcriBata' uy, H 
they could talk? Write sentenceK telling what each would say; 

R^Adlitg Skill 

His not always true that we irnderstand a new word wtth the help of a dlctJcsnary 
ortTi^tc^h&r. Words and spntcncos hav<j 9 contoirt. And contexts always Qlv^ duCS. 
It is possible to guess the meaning of a word fronni its position in a sentence. A known 
Wond can give the meaning of an unkncwn word. 80 yOu need not teel helpless. You 

can guess the meaning of even a difTicuit passage. 

A. Re^d thB paragraph beiow. Use context clues to get the meting of each 
underlined word^ Then write yefi ornotoansweraachqii^estior. 

Thfi Arctic TUndn 

The Arctic Tu nd ra is a cold , dry reg 1 on covered by snow most of the year. The Ireeless 
piains are vast. Tundra makes up nearly five mil lion ^u^no kilornetres Of the Earth's 
surface. Because it is so cold there, few people inhabit the region. During winter, the 
weather is so fnaid that those who do live in the Tundra, often weartwosets of clothing 
to keep themselves warir . In the lundm, the glare of the sunlight reflected on the snow 
is intense. Peop le must protect their eyes from the ^irmg light to prevent any damage 
to the eyes. Animals d tundra must be v#ry wild to survive. Only shrewd and clever 
anifrials escape fnom their enemies and are able to capture their prey. Watdiing two 
animalfi fighting fiacQg]^ for their lives can be a hon-ifvinQ eMwrianca. Making even the 
bravest person tremble with fieareiid woftder. 

Can an Qceflfi be vast? 

Can a sharttiohatiil a bathtub? 

Can fire be frigid 7 

Can a hurricane tie lOiaMS? 

Can a No n act fiercely ? 

Can a sudden noise be horrifying ? Yes /No 

Yes/ No 
Yea J No 
Yes /No 
Yes /No 

& . On a separate paper write a ae ntence fbr each word underilned In ttie paragra ph 


Ravi^bn of tense Ibniis 

Do ^a krtaw? Jha wonf viltft nmrm ffun HIb vt teHmrm tit 
t^bain^ wboSl Hmi t^ fifVWBr si ths end if tiia unii. 

You have been learning sfmple and continuous tens^ In the present, the past 
and the future for the past six years. This year let us consolidate what we have leamt 
and use them freely in the activitieB given tsetow focussing on perfect end perfect 
oontinunuG tenses„ 


The present perfect t&lls you Bhe resuH / effect of the past action. The action Is 
over, perfect complete but the result of the aclion is. still Qresertl . So we express sudh 
results using present perfect tense. 


When will you ask - * Who has switch ed ofTthe fa n?' 

Whan yoiJ feel sullry and you wake up because sDmetiady Ka$ switched off the fan. 
The result of the action switching off is given imponaoce here. 

1 1 is not wmng to say - ' Who switched off the Tan?' 

Here your focus is on the pefson who did the actk>n. 
So the cfio^ee of the tense depends en whicti pari you want to glue importance to. 

Present perfect tense jsfonnedas - 

SMbjevt * have i h&5 + Vwti 
fil1iwputpartldpl«1fonTt+ C 

A preparatory (or dumnny) 'there' can also be used in the subjects position, 
e ,g^ There ha$ b^n a sudden Increase in the pri ce of gold. 

points afisma, ^^^^^ 

e.g. 1 . The train has Jeftat7.30 pm »:- ZThe train left at 7. 30 pm E 

The indefinite pomts of time in the present perfect tertse sentences. 

* I Bhink I heve seen you t>efpre . * I have never visiited a foreign ^ 

♦You have made the same feq uest country. 

earllflf . *" H^ ve you ever &&$ n a ci nerna 
*The child ren have not relumed shooting? 

from school yet. * We hay en t heard of Ihe doctor's 

*J have read this book ateSfljC- visit ti 1 1 Jifiw. 

*Our Irain has just an-ived. 

Complete the dialogue ustng the present perfiectt^ns^: 

A teacher asked each of his students to draw a picture on a sheet of paper. He went 

mufid the dass to look at their drawirvgs. One boy showed his work of art lo ihe 

t^ch^r, The sheet w^s blank. 

Teacher : What you^ (do)? n't you (draw)snything? 

Boy : Sir, I {d raw) the picture of a cow grating- 
Teacher : Don't try to fod me! Where is the grass? 
Boy : The cow ^(eat) allthe grass. 

Teacher : Ok! Where is the cow then? 

Boy : M It , [eat) all the g r^ss . It (go) 

home, sir! I » I 

Th« Pre&fln(parf«ctcontinuouai«ns«: 

lias tie ch ild been sy ffering from cof our bli nd ness? 
How long 

{ever spnce he was born. 
sinoj his birth, 
fbr nearly six yesre. 

Us^e'sinee" toa past pdntof time, wond or plirase. Use 'evaralnce* toa past incident. 
Use fot for Uie total period of time. 

The pasi perfect tense : 

>^ While the present perfect relates the pnesenteffect of a paslaction, the paft^aiffect 
relates the presence oi the effecl of a past acllon at another uast poh I of Uma . 

e.g. Leela had a pet pan-ot in a beautify! cage. She loved IL She fed it with fnjils and 
nuts. One day white hunying lo schopL she forgot to cbso the pamot's cage. And 
when she returned from school, the cage was empty. We can express this using the 
past perfect. 

This can be eKpress^d using the past perfeot tense as follows: 

♦ Before Lee^a returned home, the parrot had flown away. 
♦After the parrot h^d flowji awayr Led 3 retumod home. 
♦When Leela return^ home, the parrot had already flown away. 

Now what have you errfved at: 

^■"The two past actions did not take plaoeatthesame time. 

^3^0rTB w^s earlier and the othsr was later, 

>^The effect of the first action was present at the time of the secorid action. 

Change ttie folfowlng uslnci the past perfect tense. 

1 . Only after reaching ih e rai i way station, I realized that I did not bring the ticket 

2 . The eccused was in jail for five yesrs before he had taeen released . 

3. The monkeys ate all the bananas in the tree a nd so there were no 
bananas !e^ for us [^ 

Think fif your 
exorn halt 

* a ef r e I 
answered all 

questioris, the 
frnaJ bdl had 

P a5i pe rteci conii nuQus: 

e.Q. 1r I had been waiting fof a long ttme before my bus came . 

2 r People had been traveaim g on foot a nd by bullock carts for h u ndreds ol yea rs 

before other kinds Gftrans|>orl arrived . 
3. The building had been stand ing here for more than sixty years before it yras 

d^ m pli&h^ . 

TheformofthelenseSs Suyecl^lradbaen+V-mg^G | 

E asi cal ly, th Is teose is used to look back fro m a point of time in Hie past and tal k about 
scmettiing Ifiat was in progress uP to that fxant 

Now try to do the following: 

I. a. Raju (watch J TV for an hour before the 

power (go) off. 

b. The police ^ (try) to catch the thief several limes when 

he (catch) finally last week. 

II. Joint the pajfs of sentences using surLable time conjunclions (when ; after/ before} 
and write single past perfect continuous sentences. 

1 . a. The ONGC men were drilling for several months, 
b. Ffnaily they struck oil. 

2. a. The British were ruling us for more than a hundred years. 

3. a. Mr. Abdul hCaJam was working as a space scientisE for several years, 
b- Thpon ho was etecled as the Pnssi(ionf of tndia. 

4. a. The Negroes rn Amerfca were suFTering assEaves for many decades. 
b. They were made free during Abraham Uncotn's preskiency. 

What have you amved at: 

Thi^s tense csnies two time expressions - 

^ -" EKpr essmg the duratio n oF the Blnst past cortt^nuous actton . 

^ EKpressmgtihe (past) terminating pointof the second action. 
Futurv p^iffict t&nfier 
e.g. a ) By the end ot March , we will have learnt all the lessons in our books. 

b) It IS already late. By the ti me we reach the stadium , the match wi II have started . 

We have discussed action sentences in the present , pa-st and future times in their 
different forms namely general, continuous, perfect and perfect continuous. These 
expresskins are limited to time related concepts. At times we need to add ideas / 
special meaning to the main verbs to express aspects like ability, necessity, 
pemr^ission, wish etc. r^ 

Thene i& rro provision for this either in the main verbs or in the group of tje-\ 'have\ and 

'do' helphg Verbs. So we need a special qraup of helping vertos la do the special 
function. We have once soch band of helping verbs called 'Modal auxiliaiies' or 
Madala^ They express add&d m^gning &nd f&gling tp the main verts. The fQHowing 
Ghart shows Ihe listof modalsand their nomnal moods added to the main verbs. 


|to<lal$ M«anlftB abided to the main v«fb 



Ability, possibility, request, pemiisslon. capacity 



Request, atiilrty and po$sft^lity (past) 



Intention, surety, willingness, pi^^otbn, p^im^sion 
{seeking - in questtonsl 



prgbat^tlity. wisungne^, regular / habitual, i 
past Bijtions, vwishes, request ( in questions) 

Futuiity, suggestion, intention, insistence 





Obligation, advice, duty, reBponsibllity, neoessity, expeotatlofi - 



Possihilfly, p^rmissianH wfshsSt conoessiions 



Pemr^fsslon, possibility, prnbabHity {lesser), concessMDn 



t^ecessity, obtrgiation, compulsion, certainty, 
conclusion [deduction] 

The words 'nead*p 'dare' and 'used to" are also used as medals at times. But they can 

be used as main verbs also. So they are called "marginal modal s'. 

Refer to the table and indicate the shades of meaning added to the main verb in each 


e,g. Can you count the stars? (possibility) 

I can ride a bicyde. (abil%) 

1 . How much oil can this conteinef hold? ( 

2, ffl! you give me your umbrella? (. 




3. Shall we try a nother method to solve this problem? 

4,Mjayhissoulrestinpeacel ( ) 

5. Do you see these fool marks? I think a tigef must have cmssed this place. ( 

6. You rnay do any job but you must not stea I . ( J ( ) 

7. The schod assembly starts at 6.3D . You should be here befona that. ( } 
a. I have written a letter to my father. I may get a reply. 

I might get a money order ( ) ( ) 



©Read and rBJaxli? ^9^ 

A cariner c&n c^n anything that he c^n £^. But he c&nt ^/kM 
carta can, can he? ^^^r 

C&nn&r- e person whopr^sen/^^ ihfngs In con/t&fneFs tors&te 
Can {mv} -prucBssofprosemng 
Can (noun) - a contBfner ^^. 


Listening Skill 

Your i^^ch^r^U r&Bd ouf Iftte n^^i^&p^r^ftlf:^^ twf Ci. Ctose your 

tooksilsten^ diacussandihBn answorherQUBstio^s, 

Chi una Pillaito unbaric on n major nuaslon: (Vnnl Domfsamy) 

Chennai: The most recognizable face of Tamil Nadu's community banking 
mctvement, China Pillal, leader of the Madural based - Kalanjiyam (yaldcamp will soon 
be v]$ltlng Africa, 1^e Netherlands and MqkIco, spreading ^ message of Indian - 
Elyie nj ral em powemienL 

Tor a movement that slarted with Just R3.2Q eat^ from ten people, we now 
have four lakh members spread across nine Indian Sates, Rs.100 crore In savings 
and Rs . 2 era ra rn revolving loans. The mission now is to enlist mml poor from othef 
countries and Inaplrelhem Istalce up community ban Icing," Xhlnna Filial, who counts 
President AbdjI Kalam among heradmimrs, told The Hindu during a recent visit to 
Chsnnai to receiva ^a Doordarshan Podhigsi award for mantoiious social service. 
Working out of Azhagar KJoll, Madural, the B3-year - old ha& travelled all over thB 
country speaking to mral women abojtcommunlty cr^its and mlcmflnance. 

"There have also be&fi eMpnessions of interest fnom South Africa aftief an 
NGO delegation from Hiere visited us last year. We will scon be networtdng with 
NGOs in Tanzania and Ethiopia too and Chinna PlUai will be our resoart;^ pei^on for 
all these initi^ative", according to MP. \^$innalaj, rounder and execuiive director, Dhan 
Fo u ndatic n . "Thi^s is a model that can Inspl re other developing oountriea too'', Chinna 
Piiiai adds She will interact with NGOs in the African countries, using translator 

1 . Have you ever coma across any akIoHywoman san^ng tiie jseopla In your village / 

town? Share your eKperience with the class. 

2. What is an NGOand what does It normal ly do? 

3. How does Ms. Chinna Pillai help people in rural Tamil nadu? 
4r Do you think you can be of ^ little help to h^r? In what way? 
5^ Which of these clwloes should lead peopla? 

(a) Cnones of rupees (b) Love for the poor (c) IHelp from foreign countries, 


apaaking Skill: . ^ 

Hem are a few detaits about thi-s famous Indian wHd 'flaw away^. CoUect more ciatailfip 
DompQc and present an oral fiepoit. 

'5/ia ;e# in^i& 9S a &tud^nt but she wouJd see the naOan of her bfrth, &tf of it, fmm 
hundreds ofmihs abovB\ - Georpe W.Bush, fofmBr PrBsId&nt of th& USAr 





Previous Occupation 
Timlin epace 




KarnaLHaryana, India 

Fabmary 1 , 2003 {agad40) 


Rasearch Scjentiat 




She wsa one of the ss^^n cfsw members kJDed \n the Space Shuttie CoJumbJa 

^ SiartwfihantnfBFOsIiTtg39n^f:ca. 

^ Sp9Bi(t:iBaffyand!Dudfy. 

^ TJy fwf to^y mfrt!(^ fwn* "jwd- ctfnfi«fl or ifltf eltt*r jJiJf. 


Do ycHi have dreams to goto Spa^? 

I. WWts a ^tter to tfrs Dfrectorp tndfan Spacs Researdi Or^anlsatfon , Srlharlkotta 

expnssslng your desire to visit the Space Resfisrch Centra and Interview the spac^ 
ficientists of India. 

Impress upon the Dlmctor that though you ana an ordinary person you want Eo 
achieve ext-aordinarv things. Use this short poem by Christina Rosetti to 
olaboratfi and emphasise your request. 

An emerald is es green as grass; 

A ruby red as blood ; 

A sapphire shines as blue as heavens; 



Adiarrwnd is a bnlliantstone 
To catch the world's desire; 
An opal holds a fiery spark 
Buta flint holds fire. 

II. Write an article for your school magazjne. The article should be on the need and 
advantages of educating and empowering wonten. 
You can work on the following points. 

^ The present status of girls In villages. 

^ The parental attitude towards educating girl children. 

^ The hurdles theyface in their progress. 

^ The social, economic, geographic, emotional aspects. 

^ The possible strategies you suggest to improve their lot 

Language Function 

1. Debate 

The topic for debate is 'Should girls be educated?* Gel into three small groups. One 
group can be parents; the second boys and the third girls. Remember you shoukJ not 
fight or quaniel. Here are a setofground rules for 


participating in a debate. 

Listen carefully to what others say. 

Respect and accept Ideas that differ from your own . 

Pay attention to the reaction of your listeners. 

Avoid gesture / remarks that will hurt others' feelings. 

Walt for yourtum patiently. 

2. Project 

Meet the Self Help Groups In your village. Collect infonr^ation on; 

•^ how they work 

\ what are the areas of focus 

"^ what assistance they get from the government 

\ what plans they have to expand 

'^ how to enroll as a member 

\ what support do they get from the comm u n ity 

Write a report and present It to the class. 



bon't Qyit 

H&m is 3 poom fhat cficoufsgc^s you b work towarids your go^f whatever be tf>e 

WhenlfHngsgo Wfong, as they sometimea wfll^ 
When the road you are trudging seems all uphill, 
When th c funds a re low a nd th c d cbt$ a re h ig h , 
And you wanLlD smile bui you have Id sigh, 
When care is pressing down a bit, 
Rest, if you must- but don't you quit. 

[Mo i 3 q UQQ r with its twists a nd tu ms 
Afi everyone Df us sometime I earn s^ 
And many a failure turns about 
When he might hawe wan had he stuck it out 
Dort^give up, though pa^ seems slow^ 
>bu FH ighl su cceed wilh a noth er bl cn^. 

Success is failure turned inside out 

The fli I ve r ti n L of the olo uds df doubt 

And you can never tell how close you are; 

It may he near when it seems afar; 

So, stick to the fi g ht whe n you a re h a nd est hit. 

It's when thi4Tgs gat wome that you mustn't quit 


walking sJ©«ly 
mMtr - stmnger 
pace -rcrte of 

Read the poem agafn^ discuss and answer the questfoiH: 

1. I^ntffy the words / phrases that convey the tone of the poem. 

2- Does 'Ophill' have more meaning? 

3, We do not always learn fnom life'. Which line in the poem ex presses this? 

4.Tho poet says, "Yixi might succeed with anothsr blow*. Does he moan that 

you give the blow or rece ive the blow? 
&r Which line sums up the whole th&me of the poem? 
6. Which lines « th* po&m &p^b] to you Iha most? Why? 



A kacz in the Space 

This is an extract from an interview "Working Woman - SunFta Wir^iama'* 
conducted by Nakasha Ahmed who fives fn Ohio. This Interview was published 
on oct 1 , 2004 and posted iji "Caneef Tags." 

Sunita WilfiamSp an Indian American settled In America, 

is the first woman Astronaut who stayed in space fof the 

J longest period -195 days and while slaying In the space 

* shuttle 'Discovery she ran the Boston marathon for 4 hours & 

^ 24 mi ns . Th i s is also the fi rst of its ki n d for a wom a n Astronaut 

We are proud to have a person of Indian origin creating world 

records in space. She has been awarded Fadma Bhushan by 

the Government 

Read the intefview : 

Nakasha Ahmed: Wliat prompted you to Join tfie Navaf Aoadefny? 

Sunita Williams: That's a good t^uesHon, My brother went to the Naval Academy and 
told me, 'This could be the place for you; because it is active, physically active. It's a 
part of the cun^fculum there. We grew up as competitive swimmers and oiir whole 
f am ily is pretty active, g re w u p cam pi ng, 

Makasha Ahmed: De&crfbe a typJcaL workweek at MAS A. 

Sunita Williams: It's never typical. We get our schedule every Friday and there are 
so many things you need to learn about. Basically you need to learn about the basic 
systems of the American side of the space station and the Russian side. You need to 
learn a bout the heating system, all the energy, how to regulate thatp powef and motion 

control and how the space station orients itself. 

Kakasha Ahmncf: How do you think tMing a woman or boing South Asian has 
affected either your oareer or how you handled 

« Nations? 

Sunita WilUama: U's been pretty transparent- may be 
I've been lucky or avoided acknowledging that I'm 
different. If you don't acknowledge there is a difference 
the people around you wont acknowledge there's a 
difference. And I think that's beneficial. But I do think 
that there's a little determmation and persistence that 
ca me f ro m my dad . |— — I 

Nakasha Ahmed: What advice can you offer 
women / minorities (or anyone, reaily) if they 
hope to have a career in the space 

Sunita Wiiiiams: Don't let anyone tall you, 'You 
can't do it". That's the biggest thinking. You do 
the best you can do at what you are doing and 
find out what you need do to get in this field. 

Nai^ashaAhmed: What would you be if you weren't in this career? 

Sunita Wiiiiams: I'd always wanted to be a veterinarian -an influence from my father. 
He did neuro science, and we grew up with sketch drawings of brains all over the 
dining room. And I have always loved animals. I am very, very lucky- there are people 
who have applied seven times. You can't waste your whole life away (waiting for a 
spot). Enjoy what you're doing, you'll naturally do it well, and if this opportunity comes 
up It's Justa bonus. 

Naicasha Ahmed: How supportive was your family about going to the Navai 
Academy and pursuing a career as a pilot? Did they have some other career in 
mind for you? 

Sunita Wiiiiams: They were, "Go for it". My parents are wonderful. You didn't come 
home with bad grades, and you were going to go to college (were the basic rules). My 
mom came down to my flight school graduation ceremony. Amazed, but always very 
very supportive. My dad loves the space programme. 

Naicasha Ahmed: What has been the best part of a NASA experience? 
The worst? 

Sunita Wiiiiams: I think the best part is 
working with all the international partners. I've 
done a bunch of different jobs, worked with the 
Russians. I never thought I would be standing 
in Red Square, communicating in Russian. I 
also worked with Canadians. We have a 
bunch of people from all over Europe, Japan 
even Brazil. It breaks down any barriers - 
people are working together for one very cool 

The only thing missing is-goingouttosea. I missthepeacefulnessof it. 


Na has ha Ahmad: What^flthe NASAaalBctiDn process Ilka? 

Surtit^ William*: You ju^t apply, and all of the sarviC6$ (Army. Navy. Air force) hava 
their own sort of small selection and they send names in to NASA. The NASA takes a 
k)okata bunch of applications and goes thn>ugh and chooBSB about 1 00 people of so. 
They come dofwn foran Interview and the Int&rvfew la primarily a med tea I exam. They 
want to know your personality, are you a team player? 
E varythtng you do La tA^m - on ontad . 

Reed the Interview agailn and do ttie rolTowfna: 

1, What more quBsdons would you ask, Jfyou were to tntervlew Sunlta WllftamB? 
Write at Jaastflv^ que&tlon^. 

2. Write a report atiout Sunita William's axperionce tn NASA, 
Present your report to the ola&e. 

Hem are a few tips for writi ng a report 

Sunita Williimis 

headed for space 

again in 2012 

r*i Siujlhi aASHin-niii-i^HilUMui 

r." : ■ I. .1 ill ilMlw 

;U|t i!r ;•■ MiL^ tilli-«i[3i-ri*n 

F^i ii uniiijHiiij pirw3 
jq "KiirlM. rMu 
^Luuiu hi ti-^ili 
■rr: liAJi^i^r Ji^*£.m 

l1lD«E Di :m Ha.whMi 

H[iJL^ R-anifii, 

V^TlLbinj s^im In 
iBBixJ br nUe^^VJ- 
nariVir ViiiL fali- 

iincfipni?* ark 

JiCi .Ui' 1 11 ■ilPTrn^iil 

■'■I.Hilbj ILuEil^r^ 

^Likif I lli-4liJ Id Ibi ppiiF 

■lUii HI iri iiimtnit. 

Mi-wi u * iii^hi ft-^nwr 

Ol'iMrr^ ;lli Ijnlnmal K:4ibl 
^ki^XMLVm ijib-e SHDULtlld 
Vi^h ilil tsrw. fii ff\% 1 1^ lui 
UOutBUIl Hf. JIXCu >.nirl^li!K 
PTll*: -.ii- •■ih!;'iii rn 

It.'i iJcniivr j! 11^ 
^■aHlMI- , -ii :ri-*- 
* WfiGiiutHlH'rh- 
FuJn jftUh f(i!.| 

=f h>vine^l I'laJlu 

Jljall-d-r,:- |^:t>v 


TiwBjti-jic^fjmwiHl c^j. Kkjiji ■^ l(>; 

»W,y3tlrt*TnBIUMriliI-fcflf. ■Tlriii'^! , :..|i.« 

Hi-- ^ivr:* ^Klvfal ^^KP 1! EPpW KinurnuH m Eifih 

11,-^r* i:i7]|.i> iM^t i^riAJIi-:i|i 
tiJOTM tlM^l illiBl l if i il Itei 

■I Eftrtr«iT! ■■■'--'- > ""^Iff* 

rrvir^rtr; . ii'-iar 

UrohFr'^M^nriiiir, . . , , . -s 
aiiib1iA.Lnrfe. /#:l:l^-.. •rv 
r^HW^KiT^T;'''— ■- It -■!*.»■ 

First talca ncst^ and mm-gnibfirtodd these : 

1 . Wdte th e titi e of the i ntervie w and name 

the interview^ 
2- Write what's this about. 

3. Readforfacts. LciQktbrIhe main ideas. 
WHt^ them dawn. 

4. Add data i Is th at you wa nt to remembe r. 

5. WTiat do yDu (reporterl think of the 
Intorvlow ? (or t^ book m case of 
Book naport) 

i. Chedt your nates carefufly. Be aura 
Ihey are coinpiete and Ifiat you 
undar^iand what ihay $ay. 

MnsVHsr for Do you kn&w: ITm woref te 


Th€ One Minute Apokfff 

Winning up: 

^ DEscuss these questionsh the class: 

j^ Di d you ever ignore a fri en d i n need? 

>■ Did you reject his gerruine request for Kelp? 

• Did you fee I sorry for what you did? 

• Di d you ever express reg ret to you r fiiond? 


During fhe Gtvlf War l^sfdent Abraham Liricoln waii vlsHed hy Cofonel Scott, 
one of the commanders of the troops guaftUDfl the Gapitpl frDlfi attack by ttis 
Confederate forces in Northern Vinginia. ScDtl^ vnfb had drowned in a steamship 
CDlJisior^ while returning home after a journey to Wa$hington to nuf$a her sick 
husband Soott had appealed to negimental command tbr \&Avb to attend her burial 
and comfort his children. His request had been rejected as a battle seemed 
imminant ^nd every officer was assantiBl. But Scott, as was his right, had pressed 
his request up the chain of Gommand until it reached the Secretary of War, Edwin 
Stanton Si n ce S tanton had aJeo denied ih© n&quest, th^ oolong had taken his appeal 
all the way to the top. 

Scott went to hia Commander - in - 
Chief In the pre&ldentlfll offtee late on a 
Ssfturday night, as the last visitor vrtio 
was bI lowed in . Lincoln I istened to the 
story and as Scott reoa I led h|$ 
response, the President exploded, "Am 
I to have no rest? Is there no hour or 
spot when or where I may escape 
these CDnttAnt requeftts? Why do you 
follow ma here with such business as 
this? Why do you not go to the War 
Offica which is In charge of all mattera 
of papers and tranaportatkan?' 

apilDgy - on Axprcddioii of 


Itfoey - scmetKFng kaWid^ 

d<iwn tsy^cdplift who Ir^ed 

btfflre I 47 

i«^>cted - not grdntAd 
Aiwnfnefit- n^oHng 
CiHntFd - rmfwrtoift 
um lull - repeated 

Sootl tDfd Unodn of SlflnlDn's mTusal, and ihe Prasiderii replied, "Th&n yoy 
p r^ba b ly ought not to g o down the river. Mr Stanton knows al I a bo ut the n ecess itjes 
of the hour. He knows what mles are necessary, and the mies are made to ba 
e nfbrcfld . 1 1 wo uld be wrong of nn e to o varrlda h is m les a nd d ecision & of th i£ lei nd : it 
mig lit work disaster to important movements. And then, you ought to remember tiiat I 
have other duties to attend to-lieaven knows, enough for one man-and I can give no 
thought to questions of this kind. Why do you come here to appeal to my humanity? 
Don^tyou know that we are in the midstof a war? That suffering and death press upon 
9 II of US? That works of humanity and affection, which we cheErfijIiy perfonn in days of 
peace, are all trampled upon and outlawed by war? That there is no room left for 
Ijiem? There is but one duty now - to fightr 

"Every famify In the land is crushed with sorrow; buttheymuit not each coma 

to me for help. I have all the burdens I can carry. Go to the War DepartmenL Your 
business belongs there. If they cannot help you, then bear your burden, as we all 
must, until this war is over. Everything must yield to tbe paramount duty of finishing 
this war". 

Cofonel Scott mlumed to hfs barradc, pondering ovar 
Lihcolfi^s wands: 'Am I to have no rest? Why do you follow nY0 

heji& with such business as this? You ought to nemembw 

that I have other duties to attend tc^ heaven knofws, enough 
Ibrone jnm.,* I have all the bunjen I can carry'. 

Early the nesct morning, Colonef Scott hearef a 
and ttiere stood the President. He took Scott's hands-^ 
dear Colonel, I was a bnjte last night. I have no 
excuse to offer. I was weary to the last ejrtent, hut I 
had no right to treat a man with rudeness who ha^ 
offered his life to his country, much more a man in 
great affliction. I have had a regretful night an^ 
now come to beg you r fo rgi ven ess" . 

He said he had amanged with Stanton for 
ScoH to go to his wife's funeral. In his own carriage 
the Commander-in-Chief took the Colonel to the 
steamer wharf of the Potomac and wished hjm 

^re«: An iXfriCt fmm lf» btxk, "T^l \^ 
jfuan Vbtum^ III", S*f>gtmon Bdhkui fay Cwf 

p»^eui»r ^plAodm an Abrmhmm Urtcoin ^ dcltd 

rap at the door. Ha opened !t 
held theman^ t^rok^ out: "My 

cnfoncsd - appNfcd 
ovuTidt -iictatfbdc 
tronplEd -crushed 
yield - gw£ In 

^orafTiBti^rt - most i n^portairtit 
brnkAoLTt :stE:£rrfudd«iily 

affltetior - sorrow 

regretful - f ttl i nq iorry 

wlHrf ' & \ar\d\nQ Slogfi along fh^ 

Read the lesson again and answer the following questions. 
I Say True or False: 

1 . Lincoln was tense about the war. 

2. The Colonel wanted to breal< the rule. 

3. Edwin Stanton recommended the Colonel's request to Lincoln. 

4. Lincoln felt that saving the Nation is more important than grieving over persona) 

5 . No body except the amny was bothered about the battle. 

6. Lincoln did not mean to hurt the Colonel. 

7. The Presidentand Commander-in-Chief is one and the same person. 

II. Read the third paragraph of the lesson and explain. 

a) "It would be wrong of me to override his rules and decision ". 
Who does 'me' refer to? 

Who made rulesand decisions? 

b) "That there is no room left for them " 
What does 'them' refer to? 

What does 'room' here mean? 

III. Answer the following questions. 

1 . What do you think is the purpose of apologizi ng? 

2. Do you th ink that Lincoln was wrong i n being rude to the Colonel? 

3. If you were President Lincoln, would you beg for forgiveness? 

Learn some more words. 

You know Homophones are words that sound similar but have different spellings and 
mean ings. Here are a few from this lesson and a few more that are not in the lesson : 




know - no 

died - dyed 

hour - our 

lone - loan 

there - their 

steel - steal 

bear - bare 

break - brake 

pair -pear 

role - roll 

Use the pairs of homophones to complete each sentence. 

almirah to 

The thief broke open the 


The old man couldn't 


_the pain walking. 

foot on the rugged road after the rains. 
It's very hard to say 

to a person who you 

very well. 


B. Write the homophone pair that matches each meaning 

'^ To indicate possession of third persons 

^ To colour the hair or cloth . 

^ A mixture of Iron and Zinc . 

C. Read the iesson and compiete the exercise on the words you Ve leamt. 
Circie the correct answer for the following underiined words. 

1 . A battle seemed imminent 

(a) important (b) immediate (c) imaginary 

2 andthe mlesare madeto be enforced. 

(a) compelied (b) made to follow (c) for the enemy 

3. He took Scott's hands, held them and broke out 

(a) broke his hands (b) went out of the room (c) started suddenly 

4. I have had a regretful night 

(a) Lincoln had full rest that night. 

(b) Lincoln was feeling guilty that night. 

(c) Lincoln wanted to forget that night 

Reading Skill: \^^ Call Your President 

Read the fbllowing passage anddothetaskglvenlntheend: 

It was a hot summer day. Sonne sokjlers were hard at work n^erui Ing a 
collapsed bridge. The wooden bridge was very old but rt was very 
essential. It connected the cantonnient - the place where the soldiers 
camped -and the main town. All the supply to the amiycanr>e only through 
the bridge. The captain was shout' ng at the topofhisvoicetoqu icken the 
woric. The soldiers, tired and wonvout, were still ,^-^^ ^^^ 

woricing. They cut heavy branches, carried heavier //f^j^.^^K^^^,^i\ 

dried logs and ware sweating a lot. It was noon. The captain x^^^4^^^^i!!$^^ 

stood on one of the logs and watched the soldiers doJng their / "^ 

work. His only work was to watch them and shout. 

A man on a horse happened to pass by He saw the poor soldiers 
sj struggling and the captain frowning at them. He got off his horse, went 
near the soldiers and gave them a helping hand. The soldiers felt very 
happy that they got at least a little support That was enough to bring 
smile on their faces. The logs were in place. The work was over. The 
captain came down and thanked the man. He asked him, "Where can I 

meet you again?". The man turned to the soldiers, smiled and said, "Whenever you 

need help call your President". 

That was George Washington, the first President of Am erica. 

I 50 I 

1 . Pick out the words from the passage that express 

a) the soldiers' difficulty b) the captain's Indifference 

2. Say True or False: 

a) The sold lera were putti ng u p tents. 

b) The captain was of least help to thenn. 

c) The captain did not show his authority. 

d) The sold lers knew the man before . 

e) George Washington scolded the captain, 
e) The President can be called for^ny help. 


Active voice - Passive voice: 

You have done Active voice - Passive voice last year. Here Is a quick recap 
and a few more activities to strengthen your learning. 

Locate the following sentences In the story The One minute Apology' and 
complete the details in the brackets. 

1 . His request had bean denied ( Para line ). 

2. — and the rules are made to be enforced. (Para line — ). 

3.That works of humanity and affection are all trampied upon and outiawed by 

war?(Para — line ). 

4. Every family in the land Is crushed with son^w.(Para — line — ). 

All these sentences are In the passive voice 
t^ You know that Active voice can be used both with transitive and Intransitive verbs. 
But passive can be used only with transitive verbs. 

I. Underiine the verbs In the foiiowing sentences, in the biank on the right, write 
whether the verb Is In the active voice or In the passive voice. The first one Is 
done for you. 

1 . Lots of things can be done on the intemeL Passive : 

2. Some people send more e-mai I than paper mai I . 

3. Free online edition have been offered by many newspapers. 

4. Chess and card games are played across the net by people who live on 
opposite sides of the world. 

5. Radio station and recording clubs are playing music on the Internet 

6. Websites are used for official government postings, information and forms. 

7. Manufacturers offer their products to their customers through the net 

II, My first fishif^f^-=^?''*^H=«'>f^ 

Pick out the verbs given In bold letters and put them In the appropriate boxes 
as shown below the passage. The fishermen In our country catch fish In nets which 
are made of string. The nets are carried In boats, which take them out to sea and then 
drop them In. | 51 | 

The nets do not sink to the bottom of the sea because they are held up by 
pieces of cork They have pieces of metal at the bottom, so that they hang down 
straight. Such nets have been used for hundreds of years and they will probably be 
use d for h u nd reds of years to come. 

Last night I was taken out by some of the fishermen. The 
long net lay in the bottom of the boat. It had been fotded 
carefully before the boat left the shore, so that it could be 
thrown out into the sea slowly as the boat went forward. Two 
men were rowing and two were standing at the back dropping 
the net into the sea. A big lamp was fixed to the back of the boat. The f^sh were 
attracted by the bright light and swam towards it. Some were caught in the net and 
when It WBS polled up, there were lots In It. As the net was pulled Into the boat, the 
fish were shaken out of it. They fell Into the bottom of the boat and were left there 
until the boat returned to the shore Then the ftsh were put in baskets and were 
taken to the viliage, where the fishermen's wives cleaned them. WhiJe the fish were 
bei n g clea n ed the fis h erm e n we re w^sh ing their net 

Now the net Is being folded again In a few minutes, It wfll have been got 
ready for the next dropping. And so it will continue hour after hour and nighl after 
night as long as there are fishes in the sea-. 




are made 

G roup Act Ivrtles 

V>^k^Ar A 

Working in smaller groups makes your learning, active and permanent. Each 
of you In your group can bring newspapers in English and Circle the headlines and 
news reports, highlighting the passive sentences, Use dictionaries wherever 
necessary to understand the meaning of new words. Passives mostly occur in crisp 
form in the headlines- not in long full sentences. You should expand them into proper 
sentences in you r note book. 
For example, 

a) ftAanstriJick by lightning in forest 
A man was struck by lightning in a forest. 

b)-"Demo banned" (= Demonstration is banned). You can read the fuJi report 
under such headlines and easily make out the passive sentences. 

(2) De«crtbir?g Chanoas 

Yoy can discuss and wrrite sentences fn passive vofce about Che changes that 
you see in your sctiooL your village/cfty of with a pair of pictures before and after Bhe 

e .g. Our dass room has been painted . New trees bave been planted. 
(Village) - The marshy land has been CCTwgilELd into a paddy field. The laltes have 
bean, doited. 

(3) Pick out from tbe newsrpap^rs the promises made in the eleotiori campaign. 
Write them in your note book. 

Thay are invadabfy m Ihe passive - in firture tense, 

e .g . More iobswill be provided for yoy rvg graduates. 

Anew industry wJIIL>§ggtUB, 

The mal n n^ad I n this town wiiltaewidened . 

Overbrklges will be constmcted to ease traffic congestion. 

(4) What Is being done « passive En the present continuous. On your way to 
Ecbooi, ycu can notice a few things that are being dona. VWita a few semtancas In 
passive term. 

e.g. Tfie road is.being rnen ded 

The telephone jine is being taid, 

(5) Resuftaofavants Passive in thep^attansa 

Fill in the empty boxes in the folTowing chart using passive fonris of the verb in the past 

An unusually 

large n>u mber of | 

people were 

killed by the 



We ans gofr>gto discuss the imperative and interrogative sentences in this part. 

Read the gecond paragraph of Ltie story. The One MinuleApoEagy/ 

Locate these 

■Am I to h^v& 110 rest?" 

■|s there no hour or spot when or where I may escape these constant requests?" 

These are questions or interrogative sentences. 

Read p^va 4 

Locate Ehis : "Go to the War Depanment". This is an imperative sentence. 

The Imperatives: 

Choose a verb from tlie verb bojc to com plete each command. 


1 . Find a phone. 












your nsrme. 
the address . 
tiie problem. 
.any question. 
, any instruction. 

Verb box: 












Directtons for making a book mark. 

Mgtcjriais: Pengil, marker^, crayons, paper, sdssors and som^ p^ste. 
One of you can give these directions in your group: 

1. Draw -the head of a bookworm on a paper and cyt it out. 

2. Draw two eyes and a mouth on the he^d . 

3. Draw drcieson the paper and cut neaUy. 

4. Pa$tE the circi^s nrm beiow the oth ftr to rt>a ke the book worm's body, 

5. Fix the head of the book worm to the body. 

G. Each ti me you read a new book, add another cinde to the book worm. 
7h Watcli your hook vuormgrow- 


While dofng aasanaas in your yoga ciass or exerrases in the Physicai 
Education dass^ the teacher give^ you instoctions to move the limbs and body in 

particuiar directions and k&ep postures. iHere we us€ only impsratives Write some of 

tbese directions. 

1^ — — _u»^_ 2, — ^^_i„^^ — .u. ■: — '3, __i_^ -^ — 



Proverbs are always imperative sentences - list out a few proverbs. 

LMakehay 3. 

2. 4. 

Directing a person Write the direction in two or three imperative sentences. 

e.g. To go to a marriage hall in your town 
To go to the VAO'S office / Taluk office. 

The interrogative sentences 

Let's learn more about the interrogatives There are two types of questions. 

1 ) 'Wh' question or information question. 

2) Verb questions or "Yes / No' questions. They begin with the helping verb 'beV'do'/ 
'have' or modal auxiliaries. 

For making a Wh' question you need the correct question word and the correct 
word order. 

Here are a few tips for making Wh' questions. 
The pattern - Question word + helping verb + subject + main verb + complement. 

(qw + hv+ s + mv + complement) 

e.g. The students can wait for ten minutes. 

How long can the student wait? 
I I I I 

q w h V s mv 

Read this: 

We shall meet again on Tuesday. 

When shall we meet again? 

\ \ \ \ 

qw hv s mv 

What shall we do if there is no helping verb in the sentence? 

For example, a sentence I ike th is (a) We met last week, (b) We meet twice a week. 
The simple way is to insert the helping verbs 'do' / 'does' / 'did' and apply the structure 
qw+hv + s+mv+c. 

a) We met last week b). We meet twice a week 

A A 

did meet do meet 

qw+hv+s+mv qw+hv+s+mv 

When did we meet? How often do we meet? 

(and not use *How marvy limes do we meet?') 


This rule is not applicable to questions for which the answer is the subject in the 
sentence. For example. 

Jaganbrol<e the window Question: Who broke the window? 

The British gave us English. Question: Who gave us English? 
But the same sentences can get the frame QW+ hv+ S + mv appi ied, if the answer we 
want is the object. 

S V o 

Jagan broke the window The British gaveusEngiish. 

A A 

did break. did give 

What did Jagan breal<? What did the British give us? 

QW hv S mv 

You cannotapplythisfonmuia to 'be' sentence.. 
e.g. The cat is on the wali. Question - Where is the cat? 

Lincoln was the president of the USA. 

The question should be, 'What was Lin coin?' {and not 'Who was Lincoln?') 


Find someone with the answer: 

Prepare slips of Wh' questions one in each slip. Get help from your teacher. 
You can make use of facts from science, mathematics, history and geography. 

Prepare the con-esponding answer in slips. 

There should be more pairs of slips than the number of students in class to 
have reserve pile of slips. Each one of you can take a slip and search for your partner 
with the correct answer/ question. 

Verb questions start with a helping verb or modal auxiliaries as mentioned eariier 
and they require only 'Yes or No' as answer. 
For Example: 

1. Are you in class IX? 4. Is it handy? 

2. Do you go to school by bicycle? 5. Can you find out the meaning of any 

difficult word? 

3. Have you got a dictionary? 6. Willyou help your friend use the 


You can have a set of questions about persons "What are you iike?" 
Andl ask your friends to answer. You can work in pairs or in groups and get to know 
your classmates. 



- sure of yourself 

- interested in other people? 

- usualty happy? 

- a hard wortcing person? 
2. Do you often helpothera? 

3. Do you fee^ sorry if people don't likft you? 

4. Have you gota lot of ffisncts? 

5. Can you be patient wiOi all Ihe people? 


Let's do a quick revision of wtiat you have leamt In ead^r classes. The negative tags 

are used in positive statement and the positive tags are used wilti negative 


e.g. ChiEdren like fee cream, don't they? [The statement Is positive so the tag is 


Children doo'Lleke sitt^r^ tdfe, do they? (Negative statemenL, posE^ve tag) 

^ Tags always begin after a comma, wiflh a smslNetterand end wilti a question mark. 

^ Tags always end wttfi a pronoun naprBsentIng the subje^ct in the main sentence. 

e.g.We cant lif^e without water, cari we? 
You wNI oome In time, wont yoij? 

How to f ram e p roper questi d n tags 

ItisassimpKe as framing questions which you have just learnt 

jt^ Usattie tielping verb if one issvaiiaWe in the sentence 

^ Introd uce do, does, and ijse it I n the question tag. 

j^ For 'be' sentences use the 'be g rou p' vefbs as they are. 

The only exception to the last mte is 'am\ It has a drfferecit tag In the positive 


I am your teacher, arent I /ainll? 

I am not your enemy, am I? 

' ThB Q[/es/rdn tags for imper^tivB sentBnc&s sfs diff&mntr TTie/ 1 
n&ffect t^e mood of the speaJfe^r 
BStop crying, witfyou? ^WafklBster, canfyouf 

Pick out 10 sentences each ftofn Ihe four units you have learnt. Rewrite the 

sontences with proper question targs. Remember to use ^^le con-ect punduatiori 


Listening Skill 

Listen to this simple poem carefliliy. 

I cried 1000 tears 

On the day you left me 

i cried 1000 tears. 

For each tear i cried, 

There was a word to be said. 

No tears were enough 

To malce you see what you were doing. 

No words were enough 

To stop this pain. 

As the teardrops feii, 

So you waiked out the door. 

As the hurt increased^ 

i faded more into the misery pit. 

On the day you ieft me 

i cried 1000 fears. 

These tears were not good enough foryou - 

Now you are gone. 

We do not know whom this poem was written for. i-iowever, you maythinkofthisinthe 
context of Lincoin and his Colonei. Between them who do you think could have 
expressed this grief? 

Lincoln to the Colonel? (or) Coionei to his wife? Discuss and give reasons for your 
choice. II 

Speaking Skill rt^ 

Read the iesson again. Debate on thefoilowing points. 

One group may justify the colonei's requesL 

One group may justify Lincoln's stand. 

Each member in the group can contribute an idea. 

Groups can pose questions to each other as the following: 

- Is it not proper to ask for leave, especially 

when the Colonel lost his wife? 
The other group can argue In defence of Lincoln. 

Writing Skill 

In the story, The One Minute Apology' Lincoln felt sorry for the Colonel and 
sent him to attend to the funeral of his wife. 

I 58 I 

Imagine a situation wherein Lincoln were very fimn and would not allow the 
Colonel to go on leave. 

Write a letter The letter should be from the Colonel to his children. What 
would be his feelings? Express his feelings in at least ten sentences. You can 
make use of the following ideas: 

-feeling sorry for the mother, for the children 

- yet putting duty above the "works of humanity and affection". 

- consoling the children 

- promising to see them after the battle. 

Language Functfons 


Pay a visit to the nearest Army/Naval/Air force base. Or search the proper 
website for collecting information on: 

1. The Organizational Chart. 
(Who reports to whom) 

2. The Working cond itions for the different categories of Officers. 

3 . The procedure followed in case a person wants to go on leave, during 
normal/routine working days. 

4. The procedure for granting leave on days of emergency (war, floods, and other 
natural calamities). 

5. The facilities provided for the person going on leave.After collecting the 
information, write a report on your project. 

Write your report and present It to your class. 


The Apology 


In tils poem the poef seeks apdbgy from Ihe people worfcEr>g hard h the ^e\d, 
Does ha feel guilty or does he jostily himself? Read and find oui from Wm 

Th^nk me not unkfnd arrd rude 
That I walk alone in gnsve find glen; 
I go to the god of the wood 
To fetoh his word to men. 

Tax not my Bfoth that i 
FoSd my arms beside the braoJt; 
Each cloud that floated in the&Ny 
Writes a fatter in my book. 

Chide me not, laborious band^ 
For the Idle flowers I brought; 
Every aster in my hand 
Goes home loaded with a thought 

^K^xk * a neuTDW strcflin 
le^fiffiut - he^ wericlttg 

There was never mystery 
But tis figured in the flowers: 
Was never secret history 
But birds tell It in the bowers. 

One harvest from thy field 
Homewand brought the oxen strong; 
A second crop thine acres yield, 
Which I gather in a song. 

Elai|ih Waldo Emervon 
I AnswEf the fDlfawf ng: 

1 . Why does the poet apologiz»? 

2. Who is ho gpoiogiiing to? 

3. Do you think it is right on the partof Ihe poello be idling away wh^n the 
people are at work? 

4. How does he Justify his action? 

5. Which IJnes in the poem do you like the most? Why? 

IL (k>tl«ct poems^short v«rw3 in your traiguags thai have t^llartheme&. 
Share It with others Ln the c\a$^ 

I 49 I 

The Tears of the desert 

- hcsuJo CoeJho 

A friend of mi n a r^lumad frtm Morocco witi a boaoti- 

flil story about a missionary wl^o, ae soon as he arrived in 
Ma/nakesh, decided tin at he wouJd go for a walk every 
morning in tine desert that lay just outside the city. The trat 
tfme hB did this, he noticed a man lying down, with his ear 
pr^^ed totho ground and stroking the sand with onohand^ 

IHe'fi obviously Tnad\ the missionary said to hfmseif. But the scene was 

repeated ev&ry day, and after a month, intrigued by this strange behaviour, he 
dedded to speak to the stranger With great difficuity, since he was not yet fluent in 
Arabic, he knelt down by NIb sJde, 

What ane you doing?' 

"Tm keepifig IJw deseri coirtpany and ofliarir>d M oon- 

soiation for its ioneiiness and its tears.'" 
"i didn't know the desect was capable of teafs*. 

"itweopsevoryday because it dreams of being use- 

^ fuJ to peopie, and of being iran^fbrmed into a vast garden 

wtiere Ifiey ociild grow cereal cmps and flowers and graze 


"Weii, teii the daeert that it fa perfonninfl an important duty^, said the 
miasionaty. "Whenever i waik in the doaert, \ undoratand man's true size, beoauae its 
vast open space reminds me of how smaii we ar^, compared with God. When i iook at 
its sands, i imagine aii the miiiions of peopie in the world wtio were bom equal, even if 
the world has not always been fair to aii of them. Its mountains help me to meditate, 
and when i see the sun coming up ovef the 'hortzon^ my aouJ^ fiJIs with Joy and i feet 

The missionary left the man and retymed to hrs daity tasks. Imagine hs 
surpnae wtien, nex! morning, he found the man in the same place and in the sam^e 

"Did y ou te i i th s desert everything that I said?' 

The man nodded. 

"And it IS stjii weeping?" 

1 can hear every sob. How it's weeping because it has spent thousands of 
years thinking that it was completely useless and wasted all that time bLasphemlng 
against God and its own fate.'' 

"Weil, teii the d&aert that even though we human beings have a mudi shorter 
frfespan, we ai^so spend much of our time thinking we'na useiess. We rareiy discover 
our tnje destiny." i n \ 

1 don't know if the desert will hear that,' said the man. 
"He's accustomed to pain, and can't see things any other way." 

"Lef s do what i aiways do when i sense that peopie have 
iostaii hope. Let us pray." 

The two men kneit down and prayed. One tumed towards Mecca because he 
was a l\^uslim, and the other put his hands together in prayer because he was a 
Cathoiic. They each prayed to their own God, who has aiways been the same God, 
even though peopie insist on cailing Him by different names. 

The fbliowing day, when the missionary went for his usuai morning walk, the 
man was no ionger there, in the piece where he used to embrace the earth, the sand 
seemed wet, for a smaii spring had started bubbiing up there, in the months that 
foiiowed, the spring grew, and the inhabitants of the city buiit a weii there. 

The* Bedouin caii the piace The Weii of the Desert's Tears'. 
They say that anyone who drinks from its waters wiii find a way of 
transforming the reason for his suffering Into the reason for his Joy, 
and wili end up finding his true destiny. 

* Bedouin - locals in tlie desert 

Activity 1 

Do the story mapping using the foliowing broad outlines. 








Activity 2 

Based on the details above write the summary of the story in about 200 words. 




The Marvellous Machine 

Warming up 


1. 1 hava efiDiigh electrical circuits in pmvide phone service for a fDod-slzed cHy. 
1 am also a kjnd of ^litomaliJc piloE, keeping you from toppling over. Who am I? 

2. I am a one and a half ktlo muohrDQin d grey and whto tlague of gefetinoup 

KMisistency. Whoan^l? . 

3. I am the IM& hiW Wi^i lisss fnxn ths centra of youi fnce. Who am 17 

HI! Pm Kaavya, from ci^as^ (X. Do you know who made thai funny noise? It 
was my brothe r Kaus h i k, who jg i n dass III. H e is vary ^^ns i ti v« ixi d ost ^ n d d e^- JU8t 
than my mother entened the bed room and foundKaushik daubed with talcum powder 
all over his body. 

That's it- Now I kncsfw the reason for your snooze," said my mother. As soof^ 
AS he heard my molher's voice, my inquisitive brother started asking a lot of question^ 
like 'Why do we s neeze? I s it be cause of d ust and dew? Are the re a ny other reason s 
that ma4^ a person sneeze ,7,' 

"H el lor Can we join you?" My cousins Prithi and Vino had just hopped in. Thay 
usually spen d the weeke nds with us . Prith i , bei n g a m ed i cal stu d en t, offened to daiHy 
Ka ush i k's doubts . All of us sat around hier with keen eyes and willing ears- 

She ilartodi If you juatsneaize, something is probably irritating orlJokringttiQ 
inside of your nose. Sneezing, also called sternutation, is your bod/s way of 
rBmovUiflan InitationfrDm your nose/ 

■When the inside of your nose gets a ^cklc, 3 mossagc fs Sent to a spedal part 
of your brain c^Wed the sneeze centre. The sneeze centre in turn sends a message to- 
all the muscles that have to work together to create ttie amazingly complJcated 
process th at we ca 1 1 the s neezc," Pri th i we nt on. 

*Some of the myscloB 
tivolved aiB that of the abdomen^ 
the chest, the diaphragm, the vocal 
€old& and the throat. 

T>lft word 'ACHOO..' ftapidf f^r 
^^UtMomal-DemmaiTt ^'ninpeiiing: .Hdio- 

i. W^at made Ksuahik a/^etze sa toud^ 
S. Hava you stti\ o/ii mals jne£2t? 
3, Whfft du4 'ftcrityrotmn' nma^ 


selliftiw'- nffccted bf slight changes 

Dc?n't for^get tJie ey&lid muscles I Have you notrcect that yoy always ck>se your 
eyes wh&n you $neeze? When some people are exposed to bright light, they sneeze. 
This condition is called photic sneezing.'' she added. She smiled at our eager faces 
and saw that we wo r€? I istensng I ntently, waiting for l^rto go on , 

"Anythir^ Ihat irritate the [nsrde of your nose can triggef a sneeze. Some 
oommofi things inciude dust, coid air of pepper powder. When you catch a cold, a 
vims has occupied a place Lemporarriy there and is caustng a lot of irritation, which 
resuits in sweiiing at times. Some people have ailergles, and they sneeze when they 
^re Exposed U> certain things, such as poiien and anim^i dander. Have you ever had 
the feeling that you am about to sneeze, butit Just gets stuck? Next time that happens, 
try looking toward a bright light briefly," she chuckled. 

'Gome on. iunch is warting," came my mother's voice. 

We aii jumped yp but Vino coyidn't. "Ouch! Tm unable to stand. Someone 
please grve mea handT pleaded Vino, squirming in discomfort. 

Vino had been listening very keenly for almost 1 5 minutes, sitting ¥ffth one leg 

tucked under him. Wbe-n mother calted us, he jumped upand one of his l^gsfeit funny, 

"Your leg has falien asteep." said my mofther. If this happens, you know that 
for a short white you might have fosl fee! rng in your foot. You might have fei t your fool 
a littie heavy and numb or you might i^ve feita pncking sensation." 

'Many peopie say this is because the blood suppiy to your foot is cut off, but 
your nerves are more to blame. Nerves are like tiny tireads or w^res that mn through 
your entire body They fbmi an astoundi ngly intricate network th^t canies n>e$sage& 
back and forth t>etween your brain and the various other parts of your body," 


'When we sit on our foot, we temporariiy compress the nerves in that area. 
Thasa naive$ can't send mas^^ge^ back to tha bnah normatiy, and so for the 
moment, the connection is cut off and that part becomes numb. It's like a phone oaii 
where our friend hangs up and we haven*t yet: You r bratn is saying '"heilQ," but your 
foot ian*t able lo respond " mother ooncluded . | glaaani^y 

ph^E^ of light 

trigi9*r: cousk saintthing to iuppen 
ddiKkr: ^in^ri peai-lci^or Scafe^of 
hair* fir ffeflfloer 
duuddcd? iau^l^e^ shyfy 
Sqgdrmilig- wnggling 
firtrfcate: eompiicated 

'Hid iHicr Ati our ^#ntlon turtved towards 
Kaushik, who was eating his food hastily. 

2. What arE. Sonne peopie aiierg-ic to? 

a. Hff* do ytkU f&ml whtJi ftrn sn&&2t7 J rjjn 

"Don 't eat in a h u rry. Take it ^low." instructed iriom. 

'Why d&GS it happen to me ahAmiy&p mom? Rrst sneezing and nofw hiccjpe. 
Whatdid I dbr cried Kaushik. 

^May b€ dad ifi Ui inking of you," I commented. 

^It's y DLir fault, d&ar. You are eating too fast. You sliouM always chew your rood 
and «Bt patiently/ mother advised. 

"Aa a matter of fact, hicxups arise from the musde caiied the diaphragmp" 
began Ptlttil. 'This muscle separalea your ciiesil from your tummy. The diaphragm 
hei^pe you to breathe. Sometimes, the diaphragm becomes irritated and moves JediLlly 
cauaing your breath to come out funnliy creating the ali iy sou nd . Eating loo much too 
swiftly or nen^oysness oouid bring about hiccups. Usualiy hiccups iast oniy a f«w 
minuteSp but in some medical conditions, they may last for days and even weeks.'' 
aai^i Prithi. 

'AAHHI KaushikI There's a cockroach on your chairl^ I ywlled. He instantly 

heaped oft his chair and landed on the floor with a thud. 

'It's gone J I squealed te^ingiy. 

What's flone?" Kaushika^ked, 


Only then did he i^aii^ that hia hiccups had topped . 'How did this happen, 
ata?" fiB q uestioned . 

The mo^ popular th^r^py ^r getting hd of hkxups Is to have someone to 
scara you when you're ieast expecting it. Holding your breath and counting from 1 to 
1 D is another way. Sugar under your tongue hoips loo. Quite fascinalirtg, isnt itT I 

By thk time, we had ffnished our lunch. Thera wa$ a huge bciwl of ice ^^m, 
Wt^ing to plunge us all in delight. As we were all eyeing rt^ my mother caught Kau^hik 
tooki ng at it io ng i ng iy. She than put equal scoops of paradi^ into OU r Trailing bowls . 

*l acraamp you screa m, y^e aW acream lor . . Wcwi" axdaimed my brother 

Just then Frith i gave my knuckios a sharp rap. "Ouch! What was that fbr?^ I 
asked irhtabiy and i raalisad that I had been biting my nails. "Whafs wror^ with naii- 

L Hbv^ H^dLj Knu^Kik rd i£VEd from his 

3. Whd >iapp£nf vMsr\ a person b1ti^ KI5 

d%)lngni: muscular 
wqlf below rib cage 
cuticles: the skin at 
the base of thendl 

"When yQu bite yiaur nails, you ^re breaking tine skin and inviting genns inio 
ttie^e openings, Kn fact, seme people bite Lheir nail-s and cuticieA down so Tar thet 
lihey bleed ! Whe n ge rms In vad e, thiey catch an i nfiecti on . Speaking csf genns, tKene are 
gsrms and grime under our fingernails and when we bit& them, boih can go into our 
mouth,' s^Jd Pnthl. On hearing this, Kaushik looked repulsed and gave a wdggleof 
disgust. Piflhi grinned and went on. ^Nall biting is a habit; you may nolr&aliseyou are 
dolnf It. Vbu should ask your parents, other family mam bens and frfarKls to tail you 
whenever thsfy notice you brling your nails. If sheer wfllpcwer isnt getting you 
ariywhera, you might want to ask your mom or dad to buy you a special coburiess nail 
polish that makes your nails taste awful. This can help you learn to stop biting them. It 
also helps, if you keep your nails short and dean. Th^n you have nothing to bite onfJ 
Look at my mafi icursd nai ie. Aj^n't they lovely?' con eluded Pnth i wtth pride. 

Ae we wane diatterrng and g f g g n ng , we saw Wio yawnlr^. 
"Ant i bori n g you Vino?" asked Pn thi . 

"Not really. I jyst couldn't control thai yawn. Could you explain this 
phenomenon of a yawn?" replied Vino. 

■For Hiat well first have to understand what happens when wa breathe, 
formally, when we breathe In, wa fnhale oxygen and our body uses It up. The body 
makes a wa^te prod uct called oarban d loxl d e th at Ls exhaled fmm the lungs when wo 
breathe out. When are we sleepy, bored or tired, we breathe mora eiowiy. Our body 
requlngs oxygen and needs to discard the oarbon dioxide. Se, our brain makes us take 
an extra b reat h , which Is d eep and lo ng thus a yawn Is bom . H enca we ob-tai n mora of 
oKy^en ar^d py rue ouraalves of che excess cait of^ dJoMJde/ a^ PrtthI, 

"IVe read iti booka that a ywrt Is corrtaglous. fn the sense that It can easily 
spread to the person who Is observfr^tha other person yawnlr^. A common belief is 

that one should always screen hia mouth while yawning; othen^Hse the aoul may 
escape from the body. These beliefs may have originated to discourage public 
yawning, and also to malntalri public health, as yawning might facilitate the apread of 
diseases. So, n art tl me we feel the urg e to ya wn , we s he u Id make sure that we cove r 

our mouth effectively" 1 ended. 

fiuflicurvii connetiic treatment 
of the hor^ and the nails 
orl^lhorttd: ftart«d / come 



staxte: ia sleep for a aiuort 


ITMihf«.lltiii«: Editing great 

wander / surprise 

"Now that boyi our Stomach and brain ara fulE 
we owe ourselves some well-eamed reipite. Time 

. for a short 

my motiar 

1. Hfl# are fingtr iwlls helpjf trf to ii*> 
3L What doei th* term 'pcdJcUre' 

^. Do yon bJt* yfior nfllll? When? Why? 
4. What da we yawn? 
EL Ityonmrng oor^tsfiou^ 

Ah ^ 

Our body is undoubtedly by far the grandest, the most complex and the most 
marvellous machine ever built by God. We are also more familiar with this piece of 
Ingenuity than with any other- each one of us spends every moment of our lives with 
this exquisite masterpiece of nature. However, the truth Is that we take our bodies far 
too much for granted. Let's vow solemnly now to prize It as one of our most treasured 


1 . What are the muscles Involved while sneezing? 

2. What makes your leg fall asleep? What term do use we use to denote this 

3. How can you prevent biting your nails? 

4. What are the myths you come across In this lesson? Do you believe In 

5. Write a paragraph about the 'marvellous machine' we have read about. 

6. Can you guess the name of a man-made machine competing with the human 
brain? Write a few lines about Its use In this modem world. 

7. The following are the topics dealt with in this lesson. Now write two sentences of 
your own about each topic. 



I. Choose the most appropriate synonyms of the Italicised words from the four 
alternatives given with each sentence. 

1 . Sheela glanced at the books in the library. 

a. bewildered b. looked c. blinked d. pondered 

2. Rajesh Gauged his face with water colours. 

a. smeared b. wiped c. washed d. clouded 


3. The buzzing mosqu'iioes irritated the child. 

a. annoyed b. scared c. confused d. enthused 

4 . No one could notice the error in my essay. 

aJnfomnation c. ignore 

5. Shaicespeare is an exquisite playwright 

a. refined b. mediocre c. ordinary d. average 

II. Choose the most appropriate antonyms of the italicised words from the 
four alternatives given with each sentence. 

1 . We inhale oxygen when we breathe in. 

a. yawn b. exhale c. hiccup d. burp 

2. The human body is a compiicated machine. 

a. simple b. complex c. intricate d. extraordinary 

3. Traffic police are posted at all main roads to discourage drunken driving. 

a. forbid b. encourage c. establish d. avoid 

4. The students read the story hastily . 

a. temporarily b. quickly c. huniedly d. leisurely 

5. Rahul was inQuisitive to know the secret. 

a. curious b. incurious c. notorious d. eager 

I I I . You come across the idiom 'on my toes' i n the lesson . Now look at the following 
idioms. They are all associated with the parts of the body. Let's understand their 


see eye to eye - agree 

put one's foot In one's mouth - to say something embarrassing and then 

realize it was bad 

stay on one's toes - be ready or prepared for something 

keep an eye on - watch something to make sure it is okay 

lend/give someone a hand - to help with something 

be in over one's head - be in a situation that is very difficult 

keep one's fingers crossed - to hope that something good will happen 

get cold feet - get nervous 

have one's heart set on something - really want something 

III. Rewrite the given sentences choosing the correct idiom from above 
instead of the words underlined. 

1 . Firefig hters have to be prepared as they have to fig ht a fire at anytime. 

2. Could you tafre care of my bike wh ile I go to the store? 

3. Ku mar was in a very difficult situation when he missed his flight to London. 

4. I'm /lop/ng that I'll get the I rank this term. 

5. My son Theo realiv wants thatbitce , Maybe I will buy itfor his next birthday. 


IV. Abbreviations and Acronyms 
''Abbreviations are shortened forms of a word or phrase. 

1 . etc. - etcetera 4. tsp - teaspoonful 

2. Ltd. - Limited 5. pg - page 

3. Mt.- Mount 6. Vs- versus 

One style of abbreviation combines the initial letters of each word in a series. 

Example : extra sensory perception, which is ESP. 

Aero ny ms are wo rds d eh ved fro m th e i n itj al s of se vera I word s . 

Example: National Aeronautics and Space Agency - NASA 

You would have come across the word "ACHOO" in your lesson. WHO', 'SAARC, 

and 'AIR' are also acronyms. 

Use your dictionary and write five abbreviations and five acronyms in the space 


1. 1. 

2. 2. 

3. 3. 

4. 4. 

5. 5. 

V. You come across the word 'dentist' in this Unit. Somebody trained and 
licensed to practise general dentistry is called a DENTIST. Find out what these 
people are called. 

One who specialises in 

4 Heart disease 

4 Nervous disorder 

4 Skin disease 

4 Mental disorder 

4 Bones 

4 Kidneys 

Reading Skill 

Read the newspaper article given below. Form groups and put down the ideas 
conveyed in it in five points. 

CHENNAI : When Hakim, a 43-year-old lav/yer from Egypt, flew down to 
Chennai on June 9 to treat his ailing heart, he never thought that he would be flying 
back to his native land with an Indian heart. 


Through one of the rare heart transplants into a farEigner, doctors at Fmntier 
Lifeline gave a new lease of life to the Egyptian on June 30, thanks to the magnanimity 
of the ralfltives of a 52-y ear-aid man who had died In a mad traJTic accident. 

The Egyptian's heart was failing despite tha cci no-nary artery bypass ha had 
Undergone in 2007. He came to the cicy on June 9 hoping to havo another surgery, but 
In the last week of June he was wait listed for a transplant. On Friday, he was smiling 
from the intensive care unit of the hospital, with a new heart beating in hia chest, 

The heart was harvestfid at Stanley Medical College and brought to Frofitier 
Lifeline in a record 19 minutes in peakhour traffiGasthe traffic police amanged a green 
corridor at 7.20 pm. Ateam of doctors led by Dr Frasanth Vaijayanth did the transplant 
at 7.30 pm on Wednesday. Acoording to rules, an organ can be transplanted into a 
toreigneronly if there is no Indian recipient available during the window period after 
Ih a organ fs harvested. 

While it was tha absence of an Tndian recipient that cam a as a boofi !o lh« 
Egyptian, the state's cadaver transplant progf^m me has come under scvcnc criticism 
as hospitals licensed to do transplants have failed to prepare and update waiting lists 
of patients requiring transplants. Though nearly a dozen hospitals in the city are 
licensed to do heart tra nspla nts , the number of patien ts wait I isted before th e cadaver 
p rog ra mme for heart tra nspla nts was less than twenty. (Courtesy TO 1 , 3"" July, 2D 1 Q) 



a. . 

4, . . 


A. Direct and Indirect Sp«»i^ 

You woui^d have Jeamt in f:tass Vlil rn detaif about the rylea ydu have to remembef 

whe n you ch an g e a d i rect speech l» indirect s peech ( reported s peech ). 

Now let us recall a few pQinta: 

Saying exactly what someone has said is called direct speech (Bometimes called 

q UQted apeech) . It ap pears withi n q u ptatio n m a rks f^m") 

© 'Why doe& It always happen to me, m om?" q uesti on ad Kaus h ik. ( I ntefrogati vs) 

Q 'Aran'tthey beautiful?" asked Prithl. [Intemogative) 

Q "AAHH! The vanilla fudge has done it again!" exclaimed itlom. fE-xcfamatory) 

The above sentenccK could be reporifid as 

© kaushik asked his mom why it should always happen to him. 

© Prithi asked if they w&re beautiful. 

^ Mom axdafmed that the vanilla fudge had done !t ag^ln. 

When transforming questions, check whether you have to change: 

^ Pronouns 

^ Place and time of expression 

^ Tenses 

v^ Use a question word / if / wliether 

With a question word 

With an auxiliary 

Direct speech: "How did it happen, 


Reported speech: He asked his 

sister how it happened. 

Direct speech: "Am 1 boring. Vino?" 
Reported speech: Prithi asked Vino 
ifAvhether she was boring 

Exclamatory sentences express a sudden outburst of some emotions such as Joy, 
sorrow, contempt, regret and surprise. An exclamatory sentence has an 

exclamation mark after it which changes into a full slop in the indirect speech. 

In indirect speech, the exclamatory phrase or word (interjection) is replaced by 
exclaimed with joy, sorrow, regret, surprise and contempt. 

The connective 'that' has to be supplied in the indirect speech. 

Rewrite the given sentences In the reported form. Use appropriate subjects. 

1. "Hurrah! We have won the match!" 

He exclaimed that they had won the match 

2. "Where did you get this interesting novel from?" 

3. "Were you in town yesterday?" 

4. "What a pity you didn't come for the field trip!" 

5. "When do you intend paying me back?" 

B. Gerunds and Infinitives 

Look at these sentences: 

CQ Walkino is a qood exercise. 

Q Tom enjoved walkina. 

Q Buildina model aerooianes is a ooouiar hobbv. 

Q Kaushik is fond of eating ice cream. 

The words that are underlined are formed by the 'verb + ing'. We can see that these 
words are used as subject of a verb, the object or complement of a verb. It is a verb - 
noun, and is called a gerund. A gerund will alwaysend in -Ing. 


Now let* s see these sentences: 

Ca I love to WQlk- 

£3 I like fo build model aeroplanes. 

C3 Kaushik loves to eat loe cream. 
The words that are underlined also do the same work as the gerund. It also does 
the work of a noun. It Is in the 'to be' fbmi and Is called the Infinitive. The 
Infinitive Is not limited by person or number and only does its work as a verb. 
Read the following sentences. Identity the gerunds and infinitives and write them 
In the space provided. 


a The time to think is now. to think 

1 . i regret missing the first scene. 

2. The class wanted to paint. 

3. Grammar Is easy to understand. 

4. Repairing the remote should not be difficult 

5. Ram has an interest In reading. 

6. Indira's hobby was growing roses. 

7. To sing was Sheeba's hobby. 

fl. Jackson came to help Jerry. 

Listening Skill ^ ^ ^ ^ 

(Listening to and following instmctions) 

IHave you come across people with unruly and indecent behaviour? if so, narrate 

some incidents, where people behave so. 

Imagine you are all invited to dine with a WiP. Your teacher will give you some 

instructions on how to dine on such occasions. Listen carefully and mime 


Speaking Skill jp^ 

(Read the following Inten/lew with the 'Kalpana Chawla' Awardee, Dr. A. 

Pushpanjall, m/o the 15yrold Hithendran - the organ donor.) 

Interviewer: Good evening, Madam. We are very happy to have you 

here with us. Have you ever thought that this Incident would bring such 

awareness among the public? 

Dr. A. Pushpanjaii: No, we never thought that this Incident would bring 

such awareness among the public. 

Interviewer: Doctor, what made you both take such a decision? 

Dr. A. Pufthpnjaii: Being doctors ourselves we have handled many critical 

situations. It was my husband's decision to donate our son's organs. 

Interviewer: As a mother, was it easy taking such a decision for you? 

Dr. A. Pushpanjall: As a mother, I hoped for a miracle to happen. Our education In 

thisfieid piayed a major roie. So, it was easy to accept it. 

Interviewer: What impact did it create on the pubiic? 

Dr. A. Pushpanjall: The peopie were eniightened about organ donation. More 

peopie are coming forward to donate the organs of their loved ones once they are 

deciared 'brain dead'. 

Interviewer: i-iow many peopie have benefitted from this incident? if so how? 

Dr. A. Pushpanjall: From 2008 tili date 86 peopie have donated their organs and 476 

peopie have benefitted. Our decision has created a great awareness on organ 

donation among peopie. You oouid cali itthe'Hithendran Effect'. 

Interviewer: Are you happy about the award you have received? 

Dr. A. Pushpanjall: i am very thanidtil to the IN Govt, for recognizing our act. This 

has triggered a chain reaction among the common people. The Govt, has aiso 

started an Organ donation Committee. Donation means ' jhf . Generaiiy, by doing 

this act we don't expect anything in return. But after donating our son's organs and 70 

peopie benefitting out of it, it is iii^ewehavewon innumerable awards. 

fi Every one of us should donate blood once in six months. 
8 Every one should pledge to donate his eyes after his natural death. 
A Every one should pledge to donate all his vital organs in case he dies 
of brain death. 

Interviewer: Thani< you, Madam. We are indeed honoured having you here with us 
today. Organ Donors are Heroes! In the simplest of terms, heroes save lives and 
so do Organ Donors. They differ from the other donors. They live forever in 
those persons who receive the transplant of the donated organs. 

Form pairs. Imagine yourselves to be the inten/iewer and the interviewee. Prepare for 

an imaginary interview with the following personalities. Read it aloud for the others to 



♦Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam 

♦A.R. Rahman 


Writing Skill 

A. Letter Writing - Informal 

Your fi-jend is very fond of junic food. He /She Iceeps eating anything anywhere 
anytime. Write a letter to him / her asldng him / her to change his / her habit of eating 
JUNK FOOD and to become more health conscious. 

B. News Paper Writing - IHere are a few tips on how to write an articlefor a newspaper. 

I 73 I 

The b&gmmng of eadi n«w$pap&r artiole (tha fri^t p^ragrapti) is called tha lead (one 
or two sentences ion^); the lead should summeriz^ the main facts of th a article, tellfnf 
the 5 Ws fwho, what, when, where, and why) and how. The first paragraph sheuld 
also oontain a hook, something that grabs the reader's attenlkan arbd makes the 
raader want to read the nest of the article. 

Write an article to the newspaper about the awarefie» programme on aye 
donation you attanded racantty. Followth« tlpa given abova. 

Languaga F4in<rflon< V ^^ 

A. One of your friends needa your help to fllf In this admission form, 

Please do the 

A0I I 


CentHct Ndl 






B. Hare ara a bwvvorda assodatad wi^ hospitals. Translate the fblowng inb yoir 
mother ^ngue. 











Be Siad Vour Nose Is On Your Face 

J&^Pmtift&kyw&s bomfriBfUi^kfyn, New York in 1940. Ha i& the authorof more 
than 50 pa&try cofl&ctions. H& has also $Gt Ns po^ms to music on th& audio 
VQf^iunsofhfs ^nthoiugios. Ho often stngs andp^ysguitsrof^mostQfthciff, 


Be glad ^m nose ts cft your l^cSp 
net pasted on some other ptacs, 
for rf it were where it \^ nnt, 
you mig^i disJik^ your m^ a loi 

Imagine if yoLPr pracloim nose 

were sandwiched in between your toes, 

thai deariy would not be a treatp 
for you'd be Jwced to s^ell your fleet 

Ybur nose woukJ be a soyn^ ef dr»«J 
were it attadied alop your head, 
It soon would driw& you to despair, 
fomvef UckFsd hy your ha^r. 

WHN n your ear, your noae wmid be 
an absolute cataslrophe, 
for whon you woFio obliged to aneeio, 
youf bmin would rattle fmrn the bmaze. 

Yournose. instead, througJi thick and thin, 
remains between your eyes and chin, 
not parted on some other place- 
be gEsd y&ur nose Is on your facel 

- Jack Pmeluttlty 

'Our nas€ Is aur personal air^ 

conditioning sy^tei^- it iwormsr coW air, 
tfHiis hat ojr cmd filters EmpuritJes^' 


paxi«d- mick 

pricloui - valuable 

Mndnielwd - ^r«fi«d««n fiiM 


<frvad - f cor 

dkspalir - Jflxe hap£ 

catofftTflphc - Juddcfi ^nurt dfJotter 


(Rhyme svheme} 

You have learnt what "rhym© scheirw* l» In Unit - 1. 

fsc^ - a nose - a 

place - a 10^ - a 

not - b traat - b 

krt - b fed - b 

Wark the rhyme scheme for the other three stanzas. 

L^US understand 

1 . What is tie rhyme scheme fodowed in this poem? 
Pick out five pairs of rhyming words from the poem. 
Be glad your nose is on your face, 
not pasted on some other place,' 

a) Why does the poet a^k us to be giad? 

b) What would have happened if tl>e nose was pasted or your head? 
Wrthin your ear, your no&e v^uld be an absolute catastrophe,' 

a) Wh^ro would th^ noso be an absoiute catastrophe? 

b) Why wouJd il be a catastrophe? 
Imag ine tliat your nos& i^s placed on yoy r forehead. How would you react Id it? 





You wou^ have ieiamt about 'dnquain' poems in cl&ss VI. Heve you heard about 
'DiarfHjnte* Poems? ADiemonte Poem is ananged in a diamond pattern using seven 
lines in Ihe foiiowing manner: 

i'ii^ v^) (-ipq yg^) (-ing vgrtj) 
^deagnbing) (deggibing) (-EJegcJifring) (<)wgf^ngj 

StFict, paiiAfii 

Teaching, heiping, rnotivatlng 

Mnnopapr^er, guiao, playful, naughty 

Reading, writing, ta^l^ing 

Ciaver, sbudiuja 


iHere Fs an example of a diamonte 
fmem about a teacher and a student. 

Try lo flTHJ some more htere&tlr\g 'diamonf e' poems and write them In your note. 




Visit to the Dentist 

- B^ Eric - FrankB 
LeTs Laugh and Think as Weill 
^ "Open wkJer.*' requests tfie dentist, as he began his examinabor of the 

paUent "Good God I'' he said startled. "You've got Ihe biggest cavity IVe 

sversefln - the biggest cavity I've ever seen ."'OK Dot !" replied the patient. 

"i'm scared enough without you saying something \ike thattwpce." "f didn't i' 

said me dentist . "That w^% IUg echo . " 
^ A ilttle boy was taken to the dentist It was discovered Ihat he had a cavity 

thatwouid have to be filled. 

TlQW, young man,' asked the denUsI, "what kind offlllfng would you Ifke far 

that tooth?' 

Xhocqiate, ptease," rspNedthe yo^jfigstar, 
^ Young lady to father ■Daddy, when i g-row up shaii i t>eoonie a heart-doctor 

or a tooth doctor," 

■Dentist" "Why father?" "We have on[y one heartj but 32 teeth!" 

f was just entering tl^ door when Beena said, "The dentist's office caiied lo 
refnind you of your appointment tor lomorriow," "Weii thank you for bringing me that 
pjece of happy news," i replied /'i am so excited about seeing Dr.'Pain' again." "OhI 
Don't be such child," Beena replied. ■Dr. Mary fe part qf the group of nredioai 
pfofessionais that tend to your health and your weli tjeing." "Maybe so,'* i said "but 
sometimes I reaiiy think I envy people with false teeth. They can just mail them in lo 

As I stepped off the elevator en the sixth floor of the Professioriaf buHding that 
famiiiaf scent hit ma. It was that same unique scent that aii dentists' offices have. 
■Good morning Mr Frankel And how are you today?" chirped the happy receptiofiist. 
■Let ma tali you . " I said. " i was doing OK until I atappad off the aievator and got a whiff 
of that smeii. It always brings back memories of pain and suffering," "Oh, come on 
now Mr. Franke, we am not that mean, are we?" i chose to ignore her comment and 
^ttled down to rcfad a magaasne. But the happy recepttonist kept chattering about a 
variety of unimportant matters. "Oh, by the way, Mr Franke, for our records we need 
to know if you have a mid die iniliaf 'No, I do not/ 1 replied, "i come from a very poor 
family and we couldn't affonJ middle names." "Oh! How cute! You are a reai comedian, 
amnt you Mr. franke?" she repiied. After that enoounler she stopped bothering me 
with her trivialities., 

A roly-poly dentai hygienist appeared In the doorway and pointed to me, Toii 
are next, sir. Please foiiow me.'' We waiked atong a hallway with rooms on both sides. 
There were sounds of whiizzing driiis and moans oF pain from patents in obvious 
agony, r^ 

Mundane devetor imisb fofiTTad the a-cKimpaniment for a SDene 
rafn[nisoenE: ol a hQnY>r film. "Hem we b\'^, pleasa ba seated," sakt the hygienist end 
poir^ted tc the chafr. A bib i^as placed und&r my ohln and I assumed It was intended to 
k^gp blood from mining my clothes. Sfm began to don all kinds of pratective gear. Her 
ha ir was totally covered aEYd s he wore a mssk and e connplete face s hiel d . She put on 
rubber gloves and ssaindd b be ready bo begin. I tried to figure out if she wa«s 
pnotedJng herself or me. Parhaps she had QOrne borrlbFo disease that she didnl want 
me tQ catch. But I didnt think It was fair for her to be equipped as the ugh she was going 
Into apace and ail I had was a pa^i^er bb, 

'1^ not hurting you, am 17" Ehamymbledlhym behind Ihefao&fna&k. Qoth of 
her hands warn h my mouth bo how did she expact me to a nswer? Why don t denti sts 
wofk out seme hand algnaM foi the patient to yse tc respond? Lice one fin ger for 'yes' 
and twollngere for'no', ^^ 

Afler scraping and diisaling tc refnove the taitarbfikJup 1 wis tokJ:to&it up to 
rins*, GattFF^ up from the prone position in the chair is riOtsn easy task. My lags w*ra 
^tailing wildly and \ afmoet rippe-d off the ennr^sts while trying to gat my big body to a 
sitting position. I was sura that this was a wondarful way to tighten your stomai^h 
musdas but that wasn't the raasooforitia being hare, ^ ^ ^ ^ 

"Now." said my bundJad-up friend. •*! &n going to •TMthbrysK^ sHouki ^ fceirt 
b^njsh your leeth to make tham shinlrrg-whfta and ^^^ *"°V f '*"i ^^* iQwatary. 
today wa are featuring grape-flavored pasta." "Oh tJse speeini efos«d «mtdners 

no^" I thought. T hate the flavour of gr^pe." tAJtoretHuninflMftrwoy. 

Aflerfhe hygfenlsthad fTnfehed her part of the torture she rang a beFf to notify 

Dr. Mafy to oorrie In to do the final examination. My friend had removed her protective 
garb and I finally got a look at her face. I couldn't heFp wondering why anybody l<n thotr 
right m[nd would spend their day groping in peoples mouths. There Is absolutely 
nothing attradive about wide open, gaping Jaws. No wonder they cover up iho way 
they do. 

Or. Mary came Irttofhe naom anctgnseted me warmTy. "Weil, iefs see what we 
msy ffrid today," she said. I waa pnaying that she wouldn't find something that would 
cause me some more pain. She probed and picked at each tooth and mumbled 
informatJon tc the assistant who was with her. ''Lefs keep an &/& on this one," I heard 
her say. The assistant made some notes and I assumed it woutdn't be long before I'd 
have some work done in that area. "Oh," she said suddenly to the assistant. "Have 
you ever seen a mulberry molar?" She mentioned an elaborate medical tenm fiar this 

kind cf tooth. ^No,' aakj the assistant, "but r 
* Prolonged us« of Mp*tick remem be r lea mi ng about it ]n denta I school . " "Wei I , 
couses imaiJ damagta of ^ooth take a look, " sa id D r. IVi ary. 
enamti iearfirtg to f ormcitiofi of 

Suddenly the assistant was in my moutli poking around and obviously 
excited to finaily get to see a genuine mulben^ moiar i was now a one man freak 
SfiOw. Hey, why not cail in the oilier members of Ih^ $tafF and pefhap$ the paUenfca in 
tlie wafting room wouid iike to take a peek. At the next neigliborlrood cocKtail party I 
musl remember to show off lliis much priced possession. I would undciJbtediy he liie 
hit of the party with everyone wanting to poke around in my mouth, "He may have had 
some chiidhood disease UNat caused this," said Dr Mary to the assistant, acting as 
tl^ugii i w^SflH 8ven thana, Wsii anyway i w^^. gtsd tin^E I could a;>ntribuE,€ to th^ 
furthering of their education. Perhaps i should get some consideration when it came 

ThSs was oertalnfy one of the most expensive torture SKsions f have ever 
ejcpfifi^nc^," I s^id to the happy reC^tionist when f got ihs b\\\. '^Oh, onm& on now 
jyr. Franl^en' she responded. "Why don't you siiow me a b^ smile so 1 can see your 
sh iny whi te teeth? There, now you are ready to go cut to chamn the en tire world . Have 

'Teii m^, howit went on at Uha dentist?" BeenEi ^sked wiien i got home. "Well, 
i just learned that I iiave a mulberry moiar which is evidently sometiiing that is 
extremely rare, i have decided to sign on with tlie next sideshow that comes to town 
because I think I can make 3 lot of money with it,* "Oh boy, you are ^ real comedian, 
ariBnlyo4J?' "Funny, thaf s what the happy receptionist thinks too. 

whlzztng: a humming / buzzing noise 
bib: a pair of overalls that covers the cheat 
R»ning: moving unoontrollably 
garb: apparel 
groping: examining 
mumbled: muttered 

Th In k ing About Th© Story 

1 . Why d Id Mr. Fra n ke hale going to the dentist . 

2. Which part otthe story did you enjoy the most? Why? 

3. Have you ever been to a dentist? If 'yes' share yoyr experience with your 


Visit yotirfamfiy dentist and collect some [mportant tips on dental heatih and hygione. 
Collect some rane photographic from him and make a ^crap bogk. Dtspl^y it in, your 
cles$raom Of cIrcuEate it among friends. 


A. Fit in the sentences given toelow in ttie correct sequential order: 

Dr. Mary came in afT^rtha h(ygienist finished 

her wqi1<. D-r. M^ry wa$ surprised to see a 
mulbefry molar in his moulh. 

When he raached the alsth floor, tie was 
greeted wamily by the receptionist. 

Ha was then called in by a riDly-paly 
hygleni&t and asked Lo tie a bib under his 

Bocna snfonned Mr. Franks about his 
appointment with the dentist, Dr, K/lary 

She Immediately called her assistant and 
shewed her this strange tooth. This niade 
the author feal vary amban^s&ad. 

She scraped and chiselied to remove the 
tan^rfnom his teeth and asked him to rinse 
his mouth withgrapa-flavaured pasta. 


t—\ Unit 6 

Here ts an irvterestirvg DOfiv&rsation bstween Rohrt and hia mother 

Ma(haf : Rohil t Rohtl! Come €fi! Your brBakfasl la rBsdyl Wliem are you? 

Rohft : Moffl! rm comjng wait. . 

Wothar : Dh! You are with your cafl phonal 

RohJt : I havQ an lntcncs.tjng mcssagoE Cqmc and read iU 

{Mother reads the message) 
MotfMT : Oh\ I csn't make head or tall Df itJ 

RohU : The messiige \5 "kd u pis join 2nidrrcni for 4a b'day party" 
Mother : You have the ^vorld in your palnni 
Rcihit : Cartainly mom I Wa dn not hava time art &II. 

Mothar : (NDstalgically) In dut days, wo used to he waiting tbr tho postman's 

arrival. H>a M£^ ta rsad to tho» wivi c^HJldnt need and wriia 

Rehit : In today's fiat tfiack WDrtd, we are hard prm^^ fbr tlm&l Plfta30 

Mother : tetters are like mEasBngera. The^ carry perBohal, -eaaual and 

sentimental measaees. Today's £MS is more mechanical. The 

SMS has only evolved from tho agu old practice of witting lotlor^, 
Rxuhtt H Mom! If you dont adopt modenn technology^ you will only be 3 

Spectator in the march ofdvilEfattDn. 
Mofher 1 1 would like to be a spectator pnly. TN& love, the warmth and tha 

perianal touE^h are laoKJng. mmmm... Do you writB Jefttem ta ynur 

dear ones? 

The story we am going to read is about a ■Letter* - a father waiting 
letter from his daughter. 

In the grey sky of early dawn starm still glowed. An old man 

wsa walking through the town, drsrwing his tAtlet^ doak do3«rto 
shield his body from the cold and biting wind. E^ocept for the 
cccaaional bark of a dog, or the screedi of a bird disturbed bafora its 
ti^e, tho whole town was wrapp&d \n deathly siiorice. Mo8t of Its 
inhabitants were still in the amns of sleep. The old man, slilvened at 
times hut plodded on till he came out of the to wn- 
gate on to a straight road. On one side of the road 
wa^ a row of trees, on the otJier side the town's 
public garden. At the end of the garden stood 3 
handsome building of the newest style, and the 
light giaamad th^ cravicaa of its dc^&d dOOt^ and 

for a 

WHch port of the day E5 f he Story SBt> 

Why mer* the strE^ts desert?.(f? 


tattcTBd- r-o^g^ 
MubKtinti- re^idoiKt, 

nrci^ing- gently touching 
ploddiecf" ttiitiked heaviiy 
gleomd- gioiA/ed 

Afi aoDfT as he saw the wcxxden arch of this building, 
the old man WQS filled with hope and joy. Onttie arch hung an 

oWt>oartl with the newly paints letter* "Poel Office", The old 
man went in quietly and squatted on the veranda. The voIo&b 
of two or thnee people busy with their rouiino woric could bo 
faintiv heard through the wall. 

Toffee suparintendenTp a voice called sharply. The 
old man stared at Itie sound, but composed himself again to 
watt. But fbr the faith end love, that warmed him, he could not 

ha va borne the bitter odd. 

Name after name rang o\^ from wtthin as the derk read out the English 
addnssses in the letters and flung them to the waiting postmen. From long practice he 
had acqurred great speed at reading out the tides -Commissioner, Superintendent. 

Dlwan Sahib, and Librarian - fn flinging the letters out 


Jn the midst of thfs procedure a jesting voice from inside called, 'Coachman 

T^e oFd FT^an go! Uf^, reused h]s eye$ b heaven In gratitude and stepping 
forward put his hands to the door. 


*Yqu cailed out Coadvnan All's name, didnt you? Here I am, I hz'm come for 

*re3. Who is there?" 

^It*s an oW man, sir, who wnmes us by calling everyday for lettera that never 
0Q*ne,'said Lhecteil^ to the postmaster. 

The old man went baok slowly to the trench on which he had been 
accustomed to sit for five long years. 

Ali had been a clever hunter once. As his skill 
increased so did his love for the hunt. Soon it became an 
obaBssion. Nat a day passed without Ali setting out with his 
gun. People said that when Ali sighted the earth-brown 
partridge, almost invisible to other eyes, the poor bind, was as 
good as in his bag. 

What WOS ^SacllJflflfT A)Vs f flTOtn-[tt JfkM-y? 
How good was hSrOt huntjng^? 


fdnrHy - Jttdiffrrncrly 


dbifiulfli ~ on [du 
for feciFh9 tfwt 
cfiinpktftly ouupru 
the mjrtd 

The Eoift Iridia fjimpany 
opsfied Q p«3t boK in 

Bombay m !68S. This wos 
thft beginnrng of the 
Postoj System in tndia 

His sharp eyes saw the hare crouching even when the dogs 
faHed to see the creature cunningly hidden in tlie yellow 
brown scrub. All's eyes would w^tch t\0 sight of his e^rs; 
and In another moment it was dead. Besides thls^ he would 
often go out wi(h his. friends, the flshemnen. 

But whE^n the evening nf his Elfe was drawiifig near, hg left hEs old ways and 
suddenly took a new turn. Hisonly child ^ Miriam mamed and left him. She went off with 
a soldier to his regiment in the Punjab, and for the last five years he had no news of 
this daughtef, for whosd sake alone h^ dragged algng a oheeiless exjst^noa^ Now he 
understood the meaning of love and separation. He could no longer enjoy She 
sportsman's pleasure and laughter at the bewildered terror of the young partridges 
bereft of their parents. 

He gave up hunting aind Spent all his tinia raflecting upon his life and admiring 
the beauty of the lush green fields. He reflected deeply, and came to the oonclusiofi 
that the whole universe ts built up through Ihe love and that the grfef of separation is 
inescapable. And seeipg this, he S^t down und^r a Enee and wept brttf^rly. Ffom that 
day he rose at fouro' clock each morning to walk to the post office. In his whole life All 
had never received a letter, but with a devout sfirftnity bom of hope and faith he 
persevered end wes always the first to arrive . 

As. Alf waited, peons would come for their firms' letters - these smart young 
peons in their spotless turbans and creaking stioes were always eager to express 
themselves. With great enthusiasm they would exchange news from their various 
offices. One day, All was there as usual and did not move from his seat when th^ door 
was opened. 

"Police Commisskjnerr the clerk called out and a young fellow stepped 
forward briskJy for the letters.'Superintendent!" Another voice called. Another peon 
camo- And so the derit, like a worshipper of Vishnu, repeated his customary thousand 

At last they had a[l gone. AfS got up too and saluting the post-office as though it 
housed some precious rel^c, went off^ a pittable figure, a 
century behind his time. 

That fellow", asked the post-master, "is he mad?" 

1. ^hat mode CcKichman Ali r^lf ze 
thu pdhgfi of sefwrati on? 

2. Why did lie give up hunting? 

3. Why did Coochimirt AW cry 


bcwitdcred - conf ujfd 
bereft - Tal^Jy/ 
serenity - ailmiKSS 
nlEc - an object kepi- 
for rts o£S*ciation. wifti 
the poat fl ifveJTiemo, 

PIM Code- Postof Index 
hkJinber is the past office 
numbering or po^ cade sy^em 
Msed by Indian Post, PIN Ccjde 
has SIX (figit? and was 
introdiicedonlS'^ Aii^ust 1S?2. 

"Who sir? Oh, yes" answered ttie cterk, 'He 
has been here every day for the lestftve years. But he 

y\/ha doe^ he think wtll h^ve lime do write ^ 
tetter every day?" 

'But he Is a bit mad, sir. In the old days he 
committed many sJna; and maybe he shed some blood within some sacred pf«clncis 
and IS paylrig for it now," the postman added In support of his statemont, 

"Madman are strange peopio," the postmaster said, 

Fof several days Ali had not oome to ihe post office. Everyone wDnrfereri why, 
but no one cared enough to find out the neeson. At last he came again; but it was a 
struggle for him to breathe and on hfs face were clear sJgna of approaching end. That 
day ho could not contain hj& impatience, 

"Master Sahib." He begged the po^ maeler, "Have you a letter ti-ofii my 

The postmaster wanted to get out to the country, and was in a hurry. 
'What a pest you are, Bhall" heescdaimed haughtily. 

"My name fs AN," answered Alf absent-mindedly. 

1 know? I knowl But do you fehint^ we've got your Miriam's name registered?" 

Th^n please note it down, brother it will be useful if a letter should come 
when 1 fim not hero." For how should tho villager who had spont three-quarter^ of his 
life hunting know that Miriam's name was not vrarth a pie Ua anyone tiyt her father? 

The postmaster was beginning tg losfi his temper. "Have you no sense?" he 
cried, "Get awayl Do you think weVe going to eat your letter when it ccmes?" and he 
walked off hastiiy. 

All came out ve^i^Mrty, turning after every few $tep3 to gaze at Ihe poat offlce. 
H3s eyes were filled with tears of helplessness, for his patience was exliausted, even 
though hestiEl had fa^th. Yet how could he still hope to hear From Miriam? 

All heard one of the clerks coming up behind him, and turned to him. 'Brother!' 
he said. The derk was surprised, but being a decent fellow he saldj "Welir 

I. Why did the rrien at post af f ite 

mock at ^fi? 
Z Why did the Post Master cdii AN 'a 



prwcinrf - a bmjrutary 
Houqhtiiy - omogarvlty 

ZIP coded arc a jyrhcm af 
Pastar Cdd£ Liffcd by the 
United States Postal Service 
(USPS), ZIP isanqtronym for 
ZcrWr Improvement Plan. The 
basic f oftnot consists of 9 

"Mefe, look at thisfand All produced an old tin box 
and empEJed five golden guineas into the surprised 

dark's hand5. "Do not took so $t^rt[Bd," he cDnMntf&d- 
"They will be useful to you. and t^ey can never be to me. 
But will you do one Ifiing?" 

"What?" "Wh^t do you s^ up there?" ^aid Ali, 
pointing to ttie sky. "Heaven." 

"Allah is there, and in His presence I am giving you this money. When it comes, 
yoy must forward Miriam's letter to ms/ 

"But wtiere - where am I supposed to send it?" asked the utterly bewildered 



•^es. It is true. Today Is my last day. my vei^ lasl^ ai^sl And I have noi seen 
Miriam. I hav& had no letter from her." Tliefe w^r& beafis In Ali's ey^s as the derit. 
slowly left him and went on his way with the five golden guineas in hiB pocket. 

Ali was never seen again, and no one troubled to inquire after him. 

One day, however, trouble came to the postmaster. His daughter l^a;y ill in 
another town , and he was anxiously waiting for news of her. The post was brought in, 
and the l^tt^i^ piled on the tsibi-e. S^t^ing an envelope of the cobur and shapE h^ 
expected , the postmaster eagerly snatched was addressed to Coachman Ail and 
he dropped it as though it had given him an electric shock. He knew at or>ce ihat this 
was the ksttor trie dd man had bosn waiting lor; it must be from hisdaughtor Miriam. 

"Lakshmi Dasf calltd the poaimaal^r, Itor &uch was the name of the cteii^ to 
whom Aii had given his money "VeB sir?" 

Th is is for you r old coa chma n , Al i . Where is he now?" 
1 will find outp sir." 

The postmaster did not receive hiB own letter aH that day. He worried all night, and 
getting up at three^ went to sit in the offit^. "When All comes at four o' ctock," he 

m used "I will give hi rn the letter myself-" 

After spending a single nfcght 'm suspense, anxiously waiting for news of his 
daughter, his heart was biimming wilfi sympathy for the poor 

7~~~~~~; ~ ~r~~ ~ ^old man who h^ 

^J? ™ ^^ spenthSs nights 

2. Can money alone get what we need in 

^kmos- M British 
imoed- thought 

Spvi6 >Pojt Ported in Auguft 

cxp-nul dcHvcry af fitters. It 
tf^hertd in fl n*i* ftna wHw 
"One. India Ont Rutft" scheme 
m£ Jounthed © INR 25 for oil 
desttfurtlons acnss India. 

in tha same ^uspanse for the last fiva years. At the 
stroke of Hve he heard a Bof! knook on the door h& telt 
sura It W9S AJI. He rc$& quickly from hia dialr^ hts 

sufTaiing father's heart 
recognizing another, and 
flung file door wid& open. 

■Come 'm, Snother 
All," he Giied, handing 
the letter to the meek dki man, bene double with age, 
who was standing outstda. All was leaning ot\ a stick, 
and the tears were wet on his faoe as they had been 
when the cf&rk left him. He lifted hie eyea and in them 
was a light so unearthly that the postmaster shrar^k 
b&ck Infeaf ajid aatonlshmeni 

Hearing the postmaBter*s votoe, the clerk cairie oui 

The poacmaster did not answer. He Just stood 
ttiefa staring at tha door from wtiich Ah had 

disappeared. At last he turned to Lakshmi DaE. 1 was 

*Okl All ks dead, air But glwa ma hia tatte r' 
lA/hat! But when? Are youaure, Lakshmi Daa? 

"YesK (^at Es so/ broke In a posffnan wtio had just arrln/ed- "AJI died three 
moriths ago.' 

MHam's letter was stiFf lVfnfl= nearthfl door^ AIFb Irnag^ was &l]\\ berore hFs eyes. 

He ristened to Lakshmi Das' red ta I of the last Interwfew, but he could still not doubt the 
reality of the knock on the door and teai^ in All's eyes. He was perplexed. Had he 
really seen AU? Had his Jma§iAatIon deoajvad him? Or had it perhaps been Laicshml 

Tl^ d^By routine boflsn. The ctefl< read out (he addressea - Police 

Com missionary Supartntendant, Ltorafian - 
pnd flung the letters deftly. 

L What ^TiadE thft po«trria?tcr 

understand the f tafings of AJi7 
Z, CoF!ilTicnt on the behaviour of 

Lakshmi Das. 
3, What i:ajused the change of 

attitude of the Pfl.stfTiaster towards 


/irfspted^rym 'MtnBm'& Letter' by DhumkBtti 

About the Author 

Dhufnketu (1 892-1 965) is Ihe pen name of GownsJiankar Govardhancfas 
JDsfif, a prolific writer, who is considered one of Uie pioneers of the Gujanati 
sliort story. He publ^sihed twenty four collecEJons of sinort stories, thirty two 
novels, pfeys and travelogues. His style Is very poetic and romantJo in 
dapJcttng powerful human emotions. 

'Miriam's Letter" was translated by Mrs Naik. II was first published in 
Gontemporafy Indian Short Stories Series I by Sahitya Acadeniy in 1S59 

Complete Uie table by ^Kptaining the follOfwing phrsses/aenience* in your own words: 

Phrase/ Sentence Meaning 

With a serenity bom of hope end faHh 

he welted 


When the evening of his life was 
drawing in, he left his otd weys and 
suddenly took a new turn 

The whofie universe Es built up through i 
love and that the grief or separation 1^ 

The haughty tamper of the official had 

quiia feft hlrn in hJs son-ow and anxiety 

end had laid bare hia human heerL 

Answer the following questions In atuMJt 1 CHI ward!i each: 

1, What impressions do you form of the P<}stmaster after reading the story? 

2, Coachman Ali and Itie Postmaster have under^gone similar experiences, 
Compane thctr feelings as a father, 

3, As tl^ Postrnasfcer sat waiting for his daughter's letter, he wrote his diary. 

Iniagtne yourself as the Postmaster and write b dtary entry in about 150 
words outlining your feelings of anxiety and expectation. 


A) Matdi the meaning of the following idioms and Phrases and use them in 
sentences of your own. 


1 ) on acooynt of 

3) in the midst of 

5) 1)0 take a new turn 


Mianlngs ^ 

to begin b new cjour^i 
deprived of 
tD put up with 
owing ID 
to get used to 
V in the middled 

B) Choose the mosi accu rate of Uie four given wcn3s whicn equates witn inal of th o 

higtiligfi ted word/phra se: 

1 r The derk had acquired great speed in reading out the titles, 

a. Inquired b, evolved c obtained d. earned 

2, The otd man h^rf been ^pcuStamGd to ^it on th^ bench for five long years, 

a. ingrained b. trained c, habituated d. fix&d 

3, The Postmaster stared at the letter for a moment 

a. gezed b. gtared c tor^ d. peeped 

4. The PQStme$tef spent one nighl Anxiousfy waiting for the news. 

3. eageriy b. happily e. calmfy d. u$du% 

5. The hunlei's instinci was stitl there En AIL 

a. behaviour b. aptltyde o. wit d. Intultkon 

CJ Chnasn thn rnnsi ^ni^jr^ili? f>f thfl Jniir jjlvi^n wnfdi; f^ppositR tn the hirjhIlghtRd 

1 . The worlonert went to work eariy in Ihe morning 

a. later b. last c. latter d. fate 

2. The m habitants were in a profound sleep. 

a. superficial b. external c. shallow d. insincere 

3. The okJ man rose quic*/y from hts seat. 

a. hurriedly b. rapidiy c. fast d. stowly 

4. All went in quiBtly and sat on tJie verandah. 

a. excitedly b. nohsity c, actively d. alertly 

5. All weited in the post office witti a serenity bom of hope and faith 

a. unaasiness b. anxiety c. alami d. discontent 

D) Look up a dSctionafv and Rnd out the mesnina for (he rollowina words 

a- caressing b, squat o, composed d, partridges e, exhausted 

E) Enrich yoor vocabulary 

ANTIGRAftj^S- Transposed lettefs in a word or words Itiat produoe a 
reversal of meaning is called an Aittigram. It is aJeo calted antonym anagram. It is 
like 'Satan' in ttie antigram of 'Santa' 

fUneral - real fun, festival - evil fast, infection - fine tonic 
enonnity - more tiny rm semolina - is no meal 

Reading Skill 

Nem [s a letter from a parent to a teacher requesting the teacher to teac:h hie Eon haw 
to Imbibe g^oad qualities. Dc you know who the parent was? It waa none other ttian 
AbrBhem IJnooln, The President of !he USA. This letter e^iows tiis oonoemlbr tiis eon. 
The IbUbt neadfi thy b : 

Teach him that for every enemv there 

Is a friend. 

Teacti tilm to learn, to lo» and also 

enjoy winnirtg. 

5teerKljn awayfrennenvv^ 

Tea ct^hrm the secret of quiet laughter. , 

Teacli him the wonder of bocks^-liut < 

al50 g"ive him quiet time to ponder.^ 

over die eternal mystery of bFrds in " 

sky. beats Fn the sun and flowers on a 

green htti side 

Teach hiin to have faith Ln h^s own. 

kjeas, even II everyone tells him they 

arewroflg. ._ __ 


^Teich him to listen to all men but 
^ j^ach him ta fitter all he hears an his 
screen of ti^th, and take only good 
that cdmes ttirDugh. 
Let, him have the cauraEe to he 
Innpatient, let him haii^ the patience to 
be brave. 

Teath him b Iway^ to have sy bllme fafth 
ln the Creator and faith in himself tDo, 
because only then he will always have 

This \S'^ tall order but please &ee what 
i — _ r^ YQ^iaii do. 

He Is such a fine I Ittle feilow, my son. 

Abraham Uncoln 

Undefstand what Abraham Lincoln would haMa meant while writing such a 
maanln§fLil tetter 10 hja son's taacher 

A) Ride out sentences and phr&ses Imm the passage which mean the same as the 


a_ Lead him away fnam Jealousy , 

b. Give him time to think about and enjoy thesecieta of nature 

c. Teach him to alft the truth fn>m lies 

d. Teach him to have self-confldenoe 

a ) F I II I n the blanks I n the tab le g I van below with the comect word-class: 











Gnuunar ^^d^_-^ Tran&JbfmationarfSenftencBS 

Simple, Gompound and Complex 

Here are a few Jumbled sentencss. Match the two parts to form meanlngfUil 

remained Indoors on a hot day ^^ 
He asked me ^^-.^ avb"**^^ 

^^ G^t under a tiea 

Yeel You have picked the mesningfljl sentences. Let us lockatlfilssenterioe 

e.g Th a boy sat under a tree. 

Wfrlch fs the verts in the sentence? sat 

is there any other verb in this sentence?.... No. There is no other veit. So this 

senteni^ has Only one vart. Such a fientence which has only one finite verb la 


Ndw let us understand what a finite verb is 

Look at this example 

• I flfit He/ She/ It goea. We go. 

In the given example the verb 'go° hgs dianged according to the ten^e of the verb and 

n u m be r a nd peraDn of the subjectp 

A fin lie verb thaws tense, perBCn and numt^er of Itie subject 

In ^ite nfi despite, being, on account ot^ 
having, besides and ttie lika- th^sA are 
phraseaused in simple senlanfiaa. 


Lei U5 go babk to tie firet sentence. Tlie boy sat under a tree. Even if we add 
many woitjs and extend the sentence like 

A boy wearing a blue cap and dirty dothes, sal under a ima, not noticing ttie 
chtidr^ ground him or tfre goats grazing fn ihe fieJd. 

The sentence is bng. Still it has oniy one finite verb- ^jt. Other vert>s like 
Swearing, noticing and grazing" do not indk^ce tense, person or number. So they 
are MoivFlnilfi verbs. 

Campotind S«nlefiG# 

New let ys consider this sentence 

The t}oy took ttie tag and sai under a trae 

In tills sentence tin ere are two finite verts took and went 
This sentence can also t>e yvritten as 

1. Tbe boy took the tjag 2. He sat under the {fee. 
Both the sentences convey complete meaning. So tiiey are calfed independent 
clauses. They are also called Principal Clauses. The two sentences are combined 
using *'and". The meening hes not changed even after synthesis. 

To tran$fanrrr a santenc^ 1$ to change ft fnom ont 
gr^mmalii;;^! structure to anotiher wiJtIiout altering bhe 
meaning of the sentence. Such a pTOcess 1$ called 
tr^nsformartJDn of sentences. 

A simple sentence can be convened into a compound 
sentence and a compound sentence can be converted into 
simple sentence. To combine two simple sentences into 
compound senienoea certain conjunctions are used. Thtise 

conjunctions are calFed co-or d in a ti ng con yu n c tions. Compound ^ 



Conjunctions - end, but, still, yet, 
nevertheless, wtiereas^ only, thoneffDne 

j^ The following examples will help us understand the conversion. 

On seeing my friend, I greeted him (Simple) 
II saw my friend and I greeted him. (Compound) 

j^ We have converted "seeing" (present participle) into "saw" (past tense) 

In spite of being old, he walks quickly. (Simple) 
He is old but he walks quickly (compound) 

^ The word "being'* is converted to "be" verb - is 

In the event of practising well, you will win the match (simple) 
You practice well and then you will win the match (Compound) 

^ We have changed ''practising" to "practise" (verb) 

The ceiling is too high for me to touch (simple) 

The ceiling is very high and I cannot touch it (compound) 

^ We have removed "too... to" and conjunction ''and" is added 

Having boiled the water, he put some tea in it(simple) 
He boiled water and then put some tea in it.( compound) 

j^ We have removed "having" and "and" is added. 

Besides beating ttie boy, the policeman booked a case, (simple) 

The policeman not only beat the boy but also booked a case (compound) 

>^ We have removed "besides" and used "not only ....but also" 

Activity 1 • Identify the following type of sentences 

1 . The villagers moved out of their village. 

2. The sky was darker and the cold was more intense. 

3. He sat down under a tree and wept bitterly. 

4. In spite of being hot we managed to work. 

5. No one had any sympathy for him but all were curious about his absence. 

6. Miriam mamed and left her father 

Activity 2 - Convert the following simple sentences into compound. 

1 . Seeing the earth brown partridge. All shot at the birds. 

2. In spite of his disappointment, All went to the Post office daily. 

I 92 I 

3. Forgetting his sport, he admired the green fields. 

4. All emptied an old tin box, taking out five guineas from it. 

5. The climate was too cold for All to bear. 

Activity 3 - Convert the following Compound sentences into Simple sentences. 

1 . He was worried all night and got up at three. 

2. All committed many sins but he repented for them. 

3. All didn't get any letter nevertheless he didn't lose hope. 

4. The old man went in quickly and squatted on the verandah. 

5. AN got up and saluted the postmaster. 

Conditional Clause 

Some of the complex sentences will have a conditional clause. The subordinate 
clause having the subordinate conjunctions such as 'if , 'unless' are termed as 
conditional clauses or 'If clauses. The term condition is applied to clauses in which 
one situation is dependent on the other situation . 
There are th ree types of If clauses:- 

a) Type I - Open condition 

This condition shows the cause and effect of actions. The condition may or may 
not be fulfilled but there is a possibility. 
e.g. If you come late, you will be punished 

If the conditional clause is in the present tense the main clause will be in future 
tense. Modals like"shall, may, might and can" are also used. 
e.g. 1 . If you practise regularlv, your handwriting will improve 
2. If you use less fuel, you can minimize global warming. 

b) Type II - Improbable condition/imaginary condition 
Here the conditions are unreal or imaginary. 

e.g. 1 . If I were a butterfly, I would fly happily 

2. If I had ten hands. I would perform ten activities at a time. 

c) Type III - Impossible/unfulfilled condition. 

Here we talk about the condition that was not fulfilled or satisfied in the past. 
e.g. 1 . If we had practised well, we would have won the match(it means we did not 
practice well and so we lost the match) 

e.g. 2. If the driver had driven carefully, he would have avoided the accident 
If the conditional clause is in past perfect, the main clause will be in future perfect. 

"Unless" conditional clause. 

This type is similar to 'IP clause Type I - open condition. But the main clause 

will have 

a negative word like 'not' and 'never" 

e.g. 1 . Unless we practise well, we cannot win the match. 

2. Unless it rains heavily, we cannot solve the water problem. 

I 93 I 


Combine the foliowing sentences using 'if or 'uniess': 

1 . Take this medicine ragulerly. You wiil recover soon. 

2. I am not king. I cannot live In a palace. 

3. iHarl entered the exam hall iate. i-ie could not finish his exam In time. 

4. Take vegetables raw. You will remain healthy. 

5. Read news papers dally. You wlli develop your knowledge. 

Listening Siiili 

Listen to fbilowing information regarding the postal system that existed in ancient 

India. After listening to the passage flli in the blanks 

(The teacher wiittehu thep&s^age twice. You dose your books) 

in ancient times Kings, Emperors, rulers, Zamlndars or the feudal lords 
protected their land through the intelligence service of specially trained police or 
military agencies and courier services to convey and obtain information through 
runners, messengers, and even through pigeons. The chief of the secret service, 
known as the post master, maintained the lines of communication. The people used to 
send letters to their distant relatives through their friends or neighbours. For centuries 
It was rare for messages to be carried by any means other than by a relay of runners 
on foot. 

1. In ancient times. emperors, rulers ,zamindars or protected their 

land through the of specially trained or military agencies 

and to convey and obtain through runners and 

.The chief of secret service known as the maintained the lines of 

. For centuries It was rare for to be carried by any means 

other then of runners on 

2. List out the verbs in the given passage. 

Spealcing skill 

Activity 1 

Speak for a minute about your relationship with your parents/ your closeness with 
your brothers and sisters as an adolescent child? 

Activity 2 

Imagine, you are planning to shift your residence. Speak about the role you would 
play in the process of shifting- packing the fragile things like TV, computer, crockery, 
refrigerator, your clothes and kitohenware. 

I 94 I 

Writing Skill 

Writing an e-maii: 

-^ e-maii (Electronic i\^ail) has repiaced tiie conventional iettaras a means of 

-^ e-maii is precise and siiort. it saves time for the writer and the receiver . 
^^ Messages are transmitted instantly. 
^ Whiie writing an e-maii, we use short fomns, symbois and abbreviations that are 


Compose an e-maii to your friend. You are attending an interview at Coimbatore on 
Juiy 15^ 2010 for admission in an engineering coiiege. i nstruct your friend to picic you 
up from the Raiiway station on 1 3^ July at 6 a.m. 


From : bbbbbb®mailxom 

To : 

Subject: Interview for College Admission 

bear Sarathy, 

I am attending an interview for admission on 

15'' July. 

Reaching CBE station on 13^ at 6 a.m. 

Pick me up from the railwoy station. 

With love, 

Activity 1 

Create an e-maii id of your own 

Activity 2 

Letter Writing 

imagine that you are a student volunteer. You visit an old age home and find that an 
old lady wants to write a letter to her son who is a soldier in hCashmir. Help her write a 
letter expressing her longing to hear from her son. Write in the traditional way of 
writing letters. 


Language Function 

Activity 1 

Interview a postman who has been working for many years in a village. Your 
questions may be related to the following: 

y his feeling of joy and sonow while delivering letters 

^ happiness seen on the faces of old people on receiving pension/ Money Orders 

^ how he has become a member of the family 

Come back to your school and write a paragraph on your experience using the 
tips given below: 

y A paragraph is one whole 

y Write coherently, interestingly and imaginatively 

y Use connectives to achieve coherence ( words like firstly, second ly» however 

can be used as connectives) 
y Develop the central idea given to vou 
y Use variety to add beauty to your writing and avoid repetition 

Activity 2 

Write a paragrapli in about 100 words: 

1 . Strike the iron when it is hot, 

2. Too many cooks spoil the broth 

Activity 3 

Every year the Postal Department conducts a philately competition at Chennai. Write 
an advertisement for the competition giving the details about the day, date, venue and 
the prizes to be won. 


Activity 1 : 

Find out equivalent words in your mother tongue for the following words: 
Speed Post, Money Order. Telegram, Stamp, PIN Code &Philately, message, 
communication, Quick Mail Service, Registered post, e-mail, mobile phone, internet, 
web. technology 

Activity 2; 

Let us learn to fill a Railway reservation form, a ticket cancellation fomn, a bank 
deposit form and withdrawal form with the assistance of the teacher. 



*A Sonnet for My Incofn|Hirable Mottier 


About th« Poflin: Mothaf is the daarsst urm on earth. Her unfathomable fove Ka 
hexp^lcable. In this mc^dern poem, the poet portrays the h airships a mcsther 

undergoes in bringing up herchildnen. In the story *Mi ham's Letter" we understand 
fitial love and in the following poem, the poet portrays the daughter's aftectlon and 
admiration for her mother. The poem shows that woman am very affectionate and 

About Ihe Poet: F Joanna (1932-) ib a pnsfaBsionel wrflar. Sfia has written dvll 

sflrvice tests materials for go^^ernment agencies, a newspaper column, a national 
nawsl attar, public ralations and marketing materials, Web site content, award - 
winnjng children's stories, and more. CymentJy, she writes gnaetjng cand poems for 
h a r We bsHOp poeir sourcsvDorDp 

I often contempfatfi my chfrrfhood, Mom^ 
I am a mother now, and so I know 
Hard worit is mixed together with the fiin; 
You learned that wheri you raised ma img bqo 
\ think of all Iha things you gave to ma: 
Sacrifica, devotion, love and tears, 
r^Your heart, yeur mind, your energy and soul- 
All these you spent on me throu ghoul the years ^^' 
You loved me with a never-failing love ,' 

You gave me strength and sweet security, i 
Arvd than yoy did th€ handast thin^ of all: 
You let me separata and set me free. 
Every day, I try my best to be 
A mother like the mom you were to me. 

ByF JoMmm 

L What qijflfitits hoi tHe dauyhter 

imbitDed -froiti her fnothftr^ 
Z.. *VcHj let me »pariite and Icl me 

f ree^ - whnt i;^ the meon^i^ of the 

i. Pick out the pairs of rhyming 

word£ frotfk tht. pioem. 
4. What dots the poet wolir to 

emphosSzE in the (oJt tin linei? 

cstrNin^crtt - think ot^wit 

devution - f neat bve and 


■onict - a f DurtACf) /fne poem 

wHh f JMed rhyme scheme. 


AcUvftf ; Affbc a photograph of your 

fnoEfier [n your note book and write 
a few linea aba Jt her 


Th« Stroke of ^cfi^'us ^^j^ 

lmag[na liow messages would have been $&nt In days when facflTtF&$ Ulca 
e-mail or S^S or Islaphone were not available. Man ran from one place to another 
carrying the messages. Letters were tied to the pigeon's legs and were trained to 
r^ach the destination and dalivar tha latter^. Lat's imagine a situation ilka that whan 
Akbar had to announce to his e mpi ro abou t the b irth of h is son? l-fe was confused as to 
tiow to solve the problem. IHe appnaa&t^ed Birbal and asked for the solution. What do 
you ttiink would have been the solution given by Birba] to him? 

The Emperor Akbar was long due for a mala issue. There was no heir to 
ascend the thnone after him. He was so worried who would rule the empire after him. 
He married mariy princessea to begel a male l$aue! But d^^^l ATI his hopea ended In 

At last he mannad Jodha, a Rajput Princess of Ameer. HIa dream of begetting a 
male child was about to be fulfilledl J od ha Akbar was pregnant and the happiness cf 
tha amparor knaw no boundsl Tha paiaca was dacoratad with all faatoons and thara 
was celebration everywhere. IHe distributed clothes and gold coins generously to 
people to celebrate the ajrlvai of the heir-apparent. But unfortunately he had to visit a 
place a 150 miles away from the p^iace for adininistrative reasona! H^ wife was 
aboulto deiivara baby that day I 

What would he do! How could he get the long awaited news of the birth of a 
child? Would it be a male chWd or a female child? There were no ceH phones! No land 
lines I No telegrama, nor ennafls to ocnvay the good news to him immediately. Alcbar 
approached Brrbat who was the minister of the Mughal court for his timely counseling! 
Aftar soma thought, Birba^ asked tha Shshan^ah to post ona hundrad and fifty 
soldiers fro^ the paface tiH the place where Akbar had to stay. Each soldier was gfven 
a drum and was asked to stand at a distance of one kilo meter. The soldiers were 
instnjctad to beat once if it were a mala child and twice to indicate that it was a famala 
chiidi All were eageriy waiting to hear the drum beati The aJr was thick wtth anxiety and 

I ii I 

Tlie idea of the drum heat was a STROKE OF GENIUS. 
So on Ih & appoi nted da^ 1 50 sold iers wene posted with a d mm 

at a dfsLane& of ons km. The Emp&rof grew mere anxious to 
hear the ncws-the drum bcatf At last he heard a single drum 
heat] The moment the flrsl soldier beat the dnjm Ihe entire 
place was resounding with the noise. This reached the next 

post, the next post and finally to the place where Akbar 

was waiting! The smperor was overwhelmed with joy I He 
njshcd back to tho palace to soo tho new born babe and his 
favorite queen! The wisdom of Birbal wcriced! The message 
r&ached Akbar so fast that he galloped on his hor^e to the 
palace. Birtal who was not only AkbaTs minister and jester, 
wished him well always! Thai's how Birbal stole Akbar's heart 
and ^iTs good WlFf. Only geniuses could do it! The wit and wisdom of Birbal had 
endeared him not only to Akbar but also to a vast majority of the subjects of the 
Mughal empire. The stories of Akbar and Birbal have been handed down from 
generation to generation making him without doubtone of the best loved figures in the 
folklore of Indla^ 

Do you know? 

Akksar could not read and write but he loved bookn and huflt a magnificenii 
library with 34Q0Q manuscript^. He also had his autabiography written. Akbar'a 

ll»ary gIVM aetoar pldunof tiw if»lfut«ist*dlhoMdi(y», 


fmagine you-rseH as Birbaf and nan^te the story in first person. 

Acthrity 2 

What Birbal was to Akbar, Ten all Raman was to Krishna Deva Raya. Read rfWJre 
Stories of Ten all Raman and shared them, with your classmates. 

Aftrvtty 3i 

Develop ttie fblfowrng hinte into a sEcjy: 

Emperar Akbar-had no hejrtp the throne- worried- married many princesses- at last 
manied Jodha, a Rajput Princess- Jodha became pregnant- Akbar very happy —but— 
had to go one hundred and fifty miies away- administrative purpose- Akbar 
approach&d Birbal- counseling- Birbal instructed on^ hundred and fifty soldiers- to 
stand- with a drum- one beat for a male baby- two beats for a female baby- Akb^r 
h^ard one beat- overwhelmed wilh Joy- rushed back- saw his new born baby ^nd htt 
aff edi ona tfi queen- a i rba I , the most fa vou r i te cha racEer- In Ihe in d i a n fol k tore 


Warming up 

When certastrophe strikes 

m Do you kndvy w^D invented K^e aeroplane? 

t= Have you ever tlovWi If* 1 plane? 

^. Have you ever Mm& ecmss any daring advenlune In your life? 

^ What would you de ifthere is an emargency situaiien wh&n you srs in a 

p]£ine? Hera is a r&al life incident that happened at 120DD feel |( throws 

on the courage and oonvidion shown by Mr. White 

If over there was a pilot who made his passengers feeJ they were in good 
hands, \i was Joa Cabuk. Around 1 :3Q p.m. last Eastar Sunday, Cabuk was at the 
OQntnnls of a six-seater BebcM craft King Air 200. Keeping him company in Ihe copilot's^ 
seat was the plane's owner, a lanky construction entrepreneur named Doug White. 
VVhite's wife, Tani, and their twe Teen ago daughters finuggled under blankets in Lhe 
passenger arcs, hoping to read and nap during the thrcc-hourflighttiomc. 

"GoFrhQ ID §et a M^ bumpy as wo d^mb through this doud layer," Cabuk 

warned. He began a routine call to air traffic controllers in Miami using the plane's FAA 
identification number, NSS9DW: "Miami Center, King Air FivB-Five-Niner-Delta- 
Whiskey ..." But suddenly his voice trailed off, and his chin fell to his chesL 

White lapped him on the shoulder and called his name. 
Raising his head. Cabuk gave a long moan. Then his eyes [^ 

foiled hack in their aocketa, and he was still. White turned 
amund and shouted to his wife, "Come up here, Teri. WeVe 
got a problem." When she saw Cabuk slumpad in his seat, 
&he grabbed his arm and tried shaking him awake. "Leave 
him alone," White said after several seconds, grasping the 
terrible truth. "He's dead." 

In the cabin, IB-year-old Maggie, and her 
Sletefr Sal ley, 16, a high school sophomore, 
began to tremble. The plane was a mile above the 
earth, ascending at a rate of 2,Q00 faet per 

nifnule- And no one on board knew how to get it 

safely to the gnsund. 

1. What hfl^pcmd to Cnb^M 

tr If W^i^e able to revive Cah[^7 

I. Whowns Bailey? 


lanky^ tall and thin 

tju^lcd : pressed cioseta 


buRipy: f^aiisiriig jobs iand if rtgtdor 


tnail off: hang bad^Py 

lUimp : fall heavily ar suddenly 

7^4spln^ : unriem-ond 

lephainoF^ : secdnd yur unrvera'ty 

jtudEftt in US 

The plane was currently flying on aulDpiloL, a devioa WhrLa had never us&d. IL 
was set to 10,000 f^t, but beoauao CabJk hadnt had 8 chance to push all the 
necessary buttonSp the aircraft kept climblrig after reaching that aHJtude. White knew 
enough to wcrn^ that If the plane roae much beyotid 35,000 feet. It would fttall In the 
thin air and go into a spin. A mone urgent fiear that Cabuk might slump onto the 
contro Is . "G et h i nn out of h ene r Wh ite screamed at Tern. She hollered for Maggie, Ijut 
thara wa&nt room rn the cramped co^^Kpit Ibr both oF tham to get a handhold. Tan^i 
atnjggled to llf^ Cabuk'e body herfielf, thon ga¥e up and tightened his flight hamesmto 
kaep him Irr plar^.^ou ail g o back there and pray hand , " White tnkj her 

Terrl kissed him on the cheek, telling him, 'Yon can do thIs.'Then she returned 
to I^E cabin and wrapped her amis around the girls. After oDrrrfbrtihg Maggie — wtiq, 
overcome with ten-or and nausea, threw up in an air-sickness bag— Teni did as her 
husband had requested. She'd survived a bouL of cancer four yaars earlier if it's my 

lime todi-s, Lord, she thought, it's my time. 

Whi^e goi on the radio. ''Mrami,' ha said, "I've 

got to declare an emergency. My pilot's unconscious. 
I need help up bene. Low-time, ^ngle-engin^. I need 
a King Air pilot to talk to . " 

"f'm here," Kenkefs repffed, fighting his own 
fear TJon^ wony. I'm trying td find a solution.' Just 
then, a supervisor arrived with Lisa Grimm, who knell 

ne)d to Henkelfi and plugged her headset Into his radar panel- Grimmn 31 , had flown 
iearjets and worked as a flight instructor befoi^ becoming a controller though ^he'd 
flown a King Arr only once for two hours, she was able to tell White how to disengage 
the auta pilot. The plane had reached 1 7,SQDtEet before heoduld switch it off, 

"We're going to start a alow, shallow descent," Grimm siid in a soothing tone. 
"Pull backslowiy onthe throttle and ease the yoke overgentiy." 

The task of easing the yoke proved quite challenging. Even under normal conditions, 
ch a n g i ng a Ki n g Ai r's d irecti on ma n ua lly was a tough task. At ths Miami centre, Grimm 
continued advising White. "I want to get you 
down to 1 1 ,DQQ," she said. He tried to keep his 
descent gradual, but his speed and angle 
fluctuated wJJdLy. 

2. At what altif udt was f he piapw f lyfn^ 

3. Who mis the hM\rx for tKt Whitef? 


hnrT\is£ *- A it^furt comliitln^ of on 

dTimri^cmem of ^naps for holding your 


descent : A movernent downHord 

ypte i Ckf^ b«twW1 tnnei things iff^d 

to steer a plane 

f Juctucrl^cd : move Jn a wn/Ellk£ pottcim 

As White'^ cmH raachdd ttie proper crulfiing aititudd. Grimm began thinking 
atiead ta the landing. She knew rt would be drfTlcult end that meking the attempt In 
l^faml was n^t an option; FAA regu[at]ons re<;iulra a distressed plane to be guided lo 
the dofiast airport. A supervisor had already contacted conliDlters at Southwest 
Florktfl international AljpoftJn FortMyeiB. 

•You're gdng to be taFkfn^ lo Fort Myera apprt^ch In Just a minute," Grimm 
&akf. Tliey're going to get you down safe." She told White to turn left, over tlie Gulf of 
Mexico , beginning a cinsular manoaiivra that would ^et him on the proper t^Mjrsa 
■^uVe doing weil/' said G+I^m. Th&n she told him how to swit^ tl^ radio to Fort 
Myers's frequency. White hated to cul off contact with Grimm; her calm voice had 
become his life iin e. Sh e promised to stand by in case he wanted to tal k to heragai n . 

Norton radioed to White: "We're getting some help ftcm another pilot who'B 
fam iliar wi Eh th e aerppi an e. Are y^ u usi ng tlie autopilot or ha nd-fl^ng the plane?" 

"Me and the good Lord am hand-flyflng this plane," White replied, relieved at 
the promise of additionai baokup. Ln the cabin behind him, Teni and the girls were still 
ttuddl«d, holding hands, 

When the King Air was dowrr to 2,0D0 feet, Whila spied a gray stripe in Ihe 
distaricc. "I think I sec the runway at twelve o'dod?/ 

he said. The plane was 15 miles from (he airport, 
lined up for the final approach. Sorenann sent WOltj 
that White should slow the plane to 160 knoti, then 
drop tha landing gear and flaps. 
"When t toych down — if l touch down — do I iust kill 
the throttle?" asked White "That's correct/ hJorton 
said. "Kill the throttle and rnaximum braking/ 

The aftimBtar read 1,800 feet, then 

ambtifances and fire trucks was lined up along 
prayed harder, "it looks good rram here," _ 
Norton toid White. "The mnway \s all yours.' 

In ft^amf, a supervisor called out to Lisa 

G r ! m m : "He's d o w n [ " 
'What does that mean?" she yelled. The 
plane Is down aafiely oron fine?" 

1,000, Itien 500. An armajds of 
the landing atrip. Tern and the giria 

1 Wher* woJ Fort Myer^ 

2, WKflt ihauid Whrtt da whtM hft f PUch 

the plane? 
X Wos the p^tmt dav^n safi\^'7 


manouivre : skilful inwancrTt of a 

huddled: curf oiw's bac^ in a sfriaii 


knotSL a unJT of itngth uttd In 

kril the throttle, rcdijcc the jpced 
iiltimtter: irrftniment indicating the 
height reached 

In Fc ft My er^, Favio rushed out of th^ building to see wtiat had happened. The 
Kfrig Air was sittirtg on thte mnway, gleaming in the Ftortda sun aftera peilecl landing. 
Inside thd tow^r arxt th$ Miami control centre, Khe oh^e^ns and bscks^sp^ had already- 

"My dad is my hero," says Bailey White 

After White received instructions from a 
ground controller oft how to shut off hSs en^gines, he 
and his family staggered from the plane. 
Paramedics, meanwhile, carried Joe Cabulc from 
the cockpit and tried to revive him, but ihay were 
unsuccessful. The autopsy later deterrnined he had 
died of a h^rt aKaclt. 

gleami^ : Sh'me. brv^h^iif 
Eto^^cfcd : WQ\k unsteadily 
(BOTfil^dJc^ : a per$Qn framed 
to assist medtcai prof essisnab 
dutfifisy : tin cixdmlml'ian and 
dissection of a dead body to 

Ajnnwer the following qunjitjans In ^ bout Iflfl wcirrlK f>ai=h: 

1 . If you had been rn While's place, how would you have handfed 9ie situaljon? 

2. Explain in a few sentences the courage and determination showed by Mr White? 

3. Mr. White t>e3ieved in himself that he could land the plane. What is your view? 

4. "Uy Dad Is my hero," says Bailey White. Justify hef comment. 


After several seconds White grasped the tenible truth. 

a. comprehended b. understood c^ inferred d. raad 

The planes angle and speed fluctuated widely, 

a, osctllated b. waved c. moved d, fell 

Teni and the gids were still huddlecf, hddirig hands. 

e. curled b. swooned c. closed d, fainted 

Pull back slowly on this throttle md ea^e Hie yoke ovar gently . 

a, confina b. restrain c accelfirator d, limit 

She hart aurvivad a bout of oancar four years eerlier. 

a. succumbed b- outlived c supported d. nestled 

Antonyms (ctioose 3 wonl eepnoprttfte oppoaiites] 
Whtte wsf$ a lanky constructton entrepreneur. 

a. Iliin b. fat c. bold d. courage 

White turned around and shoutftd lo his wife. 

a. loud b. high t. whisper d. harsh 

Lisa has to engage the Whites till she gets some help. 

a. absoft b. engross c. enlist d. disengage 

We are going to starta slow, shallow descent 

a. decEine b. ascent c. fall d. steady 

Grimm's calm voice had beconw his lifeline. 

a. agitale b. composure , — , c. ood 


d. qutit 

Let's know the part of an aircraft. 

II I II I iB" 

Cross wort PiiJLd^ 

The Puzzle fn whfeh words cornss ponding to numbef du^g ana 1o b« tound and 

written in the squares in the puzzle 

Complete tho cross worid choosing the appropriate words given 

in the box: 




4. Uwd 10 Incraasq ItTt d^ ekiw Iha plane fpr 
Bind Ins 

5. TLmi tha p^opelJor 

7. GdrbBrBtffii; the thruEl ta move ths pane 

1 □ . Pmper word for b. p b ne witti wi ngs 
1 3. Ms In part of the p^ane Qiat QBn1<sa people 
18.. WhfrfA th« craw wa^ k whAn on. ncani 

Phrasal Varfo 

















This rolls along Itis grourid 

This is the turizurilBl sbbllizAr alttK back 

ThHfl cortrol lliii rol of tha asnoplBrw 

this ksaps tfw plana itatilA 
B. Thia covars the sn^ne 
S. ThoBD prwicle thg lift fbn» wtien (he piano Is 

ll.Thii tielpi to fftHf tha plarK up and dowr 
IZ.RBdhj Blgnala roech or Ihvq thmugh Ihis 
IS.ThiB points tt» plana noea lelt or right 

A phra^i v«rb is a cofrHbinati^^n of a verb and a preposition, a varb and an adverts, or 
a vart with both an adverb and a prapo&ition, any of which ara part of tha syntax of Iha 
aantanca^ and so am a complata seFiiantic u n rt 

Pidioytan appmpnsle phrase veils for each orf the iolJowing pi»c^irB. 


otff flti Iff (mfbnn}, look up (a ¥ft^^, grT3twup{(nN& 

Reading skill 
I. BNcfa hoc 

Black Box or Flight data recorders are actually painted a bright red or 
orange for easier location after a crash. The FDR is encased in heavy 
steel and su mounded by multiple layers of insulation to provide 
protection against a crash, fire, and extreme climiatic conditions. The 
dr^vice records actual flight conditions, including altitude, airspeed, 
hgading, vertical acceleration and aircraft pitch. A second device, the 
cockpit voice recorder (CVR). keeps tabs on cockpit conversations and 
engine noise. Both am JnstaJleflin the rear of the aircraft 

■f . What is the passage about? 

2. What is the use of Black Box ? 

3_ What is the colour of the Black Box? 

4-. Where do you find the Black Box In a plane? 

5. Gather additional infbrnnation about the Black Bo«. 

tt TMi ^i m 4mtM ^b^iit A£c4d49nt9 th«t happen with different tyj;^« of alf^aft 

Acddort Kite pHr/y rrnifl Typo. 2(TO ^ 


1 . What do&s this data stand 1bf7 

2. How many types of aircraft are sliowri in the diagram? 

3. Which type cf aircr^ has the highest rate of latel acxtdentsT 

4. Mf.White wes flying a plane. Which plane was hbs flying? 

5. What Is the accident rate- ibr turtxiprDp aeroplane? 


L^^ft npylAQ the compound scmaneiw wd havo teorfit In the «arlTar unit 

^ Cabuk's voice trailed off and his chin fell to his chesL 

^Tern grabbed hia arm and tried shaking him awske. 

^ She returned to the csbin and v^rapped her arms around the girts. 

Compound sentences are made up of more than one Independent clause Joint 

together w^ the oo-ordinatJng conjunction. 

GoordlmlTng Conjunctions 

The most oooimon co-ordinating oonjunctjons ar^ for, and, nor, but, or, yet* 
so. Some peopla remamtier the$a with the acronym FAN BOYS: They glue 
together sentence elements that ane equal. 

Look at ibpBfi axamplei from tha prase paiftag«: 
Titty if« coiYipleit eenten ces 

^ If the plajie nose beyond 35,000 feet, it would stall. 

^ The plane had reached 1 7,500 feet before he could switch it off. 

A complex sentence has one independent clause and one or more dependent 
dauses or ^ub- o^inating dauses. 

fiubord InatlTi g Co nju noil o na 

These conjunctions join subordinate clauses to independent dau&os- 
AsytK3Fdlnatc clause Is a clause that cannot stand on Its own. (Roiticmbor that a 
clause is a group of words with a subject and a verb.) It Is alwaye Introduced by a 
Subordinating conjunction. 
Examples^ ........unless you are allergk^ 

........whenever I sec your cat 

. . , ..... silica you are coming 


These are not complete sentences. They all have subjects {you, I, you) and verbs 
{are, see, are coming), but since they cannot stand alone, they are subordinate 
clauses. An independent clause is also a group of words with a subject and a verb. 
But, unlike a subordinate clause, an independent clause can stand on its own and 
give complete meaning. 

Independent Clause Examples: 

I will bring my cat 
I sneeze. 
I won't bring my cat. 

These are all complete sentences. They all have subjects (/), verbs {will bring, 
sneeze, won't bring), and they can stand alone. 
Subordinating conjunctionsjoin subordinate clauses with independent clauses: 

Examples: I will bhng my cat unless you are allergic. 
Whenever I see your cat, I sneeze. 
Since you are coming, I won't bring my cat. 

Identify the following sentences as compound or complex and mark the sentence. 

1 . As the horizon vanished into the blur of blue, he could not stay oriented. 
compound / complex 

2. Favio sat beside him and pulled out his cell phone. 
compound/ complex 

3. White asked for control settings that would get him to the proper speed. 
compound / complex 

4. The plane landed at the runway and Mr.White and his family got down from 
the plane 

compound / complex 

5. Ryan wrote a poem after he had finished a cricket game. 
compound/ complex 

Transformation of sentences: 

Here are a few examples of how simple sentences are transformed into complex 
and compound sentences. 

1 . a) Insplte of / Despite her poverty Anuja stood first in the examination. 


b) Although / Eventhough / Though Anuja was poor she stood first in the 
examination, (complex) 

c) Anuja was poor yet /but /still she stood first in the examination, (compound) 

2. a) On hearing the good news Agnel felt happy. (Simple) 

b. When Agnel heard the good news he felt happy. (Complex) 

c. Agnel heard the good news and he felt happy. (Com pound) 


3. a) In the event of ru n n mg firet y oy wH 1 wi n the race , [sf mpis) 

b) If you run fast you will win the fB^e. -[cornpteJ^J 

c) Unlsss you run fast you will not win the race, ^complex) 

d) Run fast oryou wiil not win the raoe (coni pound) 

4. a ) On aooautft of I BMfliis« of / Due to / Omng to /Asa res ult of bad weatief 

the match was postponed, (simpiel 
b} As/ SIfice/ Because Lhe weather was bad the match was postponed. 

cJThe weather was bad and so the match was postponed, (compound) 

5. a ) Being busy, Jeba could not attend the wedcf i ng . (simple ) 

b) As / Since / Because Jeba was busy she could not attend Hie wedding. 
(oornplex) 1 

c] Jeba was busy and ao she could not aitetid Ehe weddingn 

e. a) The coffee Is too hoi to drink [simple) 

b) The coffee is so hot that 1 can not drink . fcomptex) 

c] The coftee js very hot and so 1 can not drink it. (compou nd ) 

The following column will help you to understand and transform the sentences. 








DaspllB + noun 

Pn case of 

As a result of 

On Aocouni o(7 Because of 

Due to / Owing to 

too... to 

Besidea... +v*ins 
Wllhout .... + V + Ing 

TurDugh/AI though 

If tian^wHl^coLid/ 


Whan /As soon as 

Sinot t As / Becauee 

gfli- that... Mn/ssouid ncrt 


not only... biitalsD 




or. „ not 
1 snd/ertDfics 


ana / aniJ 50 / uienebne 

very,., and so 
snd w 

and f as well as 



1 . The box is too heavy to carry, (chango into complax aantence) 

2. Eventhough he is poor he donates generously, (chango Into compound sontonco) 

3. IRahul did not Icnow German, so he was disqualified, (change Into complex fientenca) 

4. Owing to his Illness Rajan did not appear for the examination, (change into 

compound santenca) 

5. As soon as I heard the good news i congratulated her. (changa into simple aentanco) 

Relative Pronouns 

Read the following sentences and understand how ttie relative pronouns are 

1 . Do not put off tili tomorrow what you can do today. 

2. The present moment is a gift that has been bestowed upon you. 

3. This is the planet wMch beiongs to you. 

4. Those who utiiise their time wisely will succeed in life. 

5. Most of the friends whom Geetha had Invited, came for her wedding. 

6. Chandra whose house I live In, Is a good friend of mine. 

Read the following sentences and fill In the bianks with the appropriate 
reiatlve pnsnouns. (who, whose, whom, that, which, where, what) 

1 . We met the lady chiid won the chess championship. 

2. Time is lost is lost forever. 

3. Where Is the book i gave you? 

4. We are all ieaves of a majestic tree trunk cannot be shaken off Its 


5. Children are hard working by nature wili come out with flying 


6. The lady car was stolen Is my reiatlve. 

7. We love those are kind to others. 

fl. All should remember the martyrs lives are sacrificed. 

9. Listed to i say. 

10. Robbin is the famous player my son likes very much. 

Listening skiii 

Announcement at an Airport 

Indian Airfines IC-830 is now . ^^^j. for boarding at Gate 1 1 . 

Please have your ID cards and boarding passes ready. 

Ladies and gentlemen, welcome aboard Indian Airlines Flight IC- 830 to Delhi 

via Goa, We'll be a little late for taking off because of bad weather in Goa. 

Please keep your seatbelts ^stened. We stop briery in Goa before 

arriving in Delhi 


tD board IC^SO. 

Chocfte Che oofTBd aniwen 

1 .The passengers shoufd proceed to gate 

a. 5 b. 7 c. 11 d. 9 
2. The flight is deiayed due to 

a. bad weathe r b. tedi n ica1 snag c. air traffic 
3 fC^^fliglitgciesto Odhl via 

a. Mumbai b. Goa c.CtAcu^ 

4. Passengers sin Du id be ready with 

a . ki d B b. hand i ugg age c. boarding pass 

5. The passengers have to fasten 

a. ties h. siioeJaoGS 

d. security reasons 

d. Chennal 

_ to board the flight. 

d. perfumfflt 

c. scarfs 


AnficAjncam^nt al £hft railway fttaU on, 

, — Your kind stt^niJonpSBasQi 

^ Jr&in numbBf 5635, K&nyskuritBri Bfpm^ /rom Ch0nnm' ^rnor$ to 

Hanyskufrmri wifi ieav^ shorHy from plat^^nn fwnter 9. Pf^s& k^^ your 

b^Qngtng^ ^Bfefy andhav^ a happyjoumsy. 

SpeaMng Skill 


the worid. She h^d se^ many flfght racofrfs, fiydudfng becoming ^m 
ftfst mimBii id ti/^cik} across i>otfi the Aiiantki Ocean &nd the Pacflfe 

Saria Thakr^i was the fifsf woman h India toffy a piana. She wba 
harxiiy2l whon sho ccnquemd the skyr TheyBar 1936 when ffyfng 
was like a dreBm, flying an aeroplane was iike a mirada. This 
dashing young woman made e\jafy Indian proud 

1 . Discuss In a gnsup thedarfngcounage and determination shown by these women? 

2. What simiiahties do you find: between Mr. White and these women? 

Studsy tho w^y people uk far tnformatLi^ii on the tulephooo ancl praotlu It 
witii youj pair. 

RlBospHonist : Goad moming, Indian Airiines. May I help youT 

Cofller : Good morning. Could you please tell me the fligtits to Delhi? 

ReceptJonist : There are two flights daily. One leaves at 8.30 a.m. and the other Is 

m the evening at 7 o'dock. 
Cal ler : The n k You very muc^l 

Recepcionfst : You are welcome. 


Writing Skill 

English Literary Association 

ilocution competition 

We Ofie ortKoiiinig m\ erocution competitjoii for the ftudeftti 

df^7^ and B on id lanuarv ^OH at 43d p^m. In 

diB idi5ol ouditDriLni. lh« last dote ftir m^lUiuL ion li 

the fOth of hmuafy- IrrtjeiieitBd itudmb may 0m 

their noms to the dcss teacher 

Ydu are Ihe secretary of Adventure Club in your schwoL Wrtte a notice to Infonn 
Gty dents about a trek the dub Is ofganlBlng nearKJodalkanal. 

RomemberlD mention the fo-l lowing details* 

/^ Mame af the organ isinfi body ^^ Whan and where ^-^ For hpw long 
^ Last ciate for Fegiitrotion ^ Coat per person j^ Whom to asntaot 

Looic 91 th« PeUo^rtfi «#y«rtis«iMiit rtlalvd to 1 8ook £xlill)lllDfi 

i^ Firrt rimE in chtFWfli 


Books Qt ne^er before price 

A§ood advertisement should have; 

* a catchy phrase / abgarh « an appropnata logo 

* daiity and brevity * ^n attractive background 

* addm&s, e-mail id and contact number 


Prepare a picture album or adventurB sports In India and display It In your class. 

The Flying Wondei* 

Stephen Vincent Ben^t (July 22, 1 S9B - Marc^ 1 3, 
1943) was an Amefican auQior, poel, short story 

writer, and novelist. B&net is bes( known for his book- 
tangth nan^ttva poem of thta Americian Civil War, John 
Bmwn's Body (lB2fl)p fer wWch he won a Pulit^ler 
Primli 19(29. 

Sa id Orvill e Wright to Witts u r VWlght, 

"These birds are very trying. 

I'm sick of hearing them cheep-cheep 

About the fun of flying, 

A biFid has feathers, it ie true. 

That much I frocly grant. 

Sut musl that stop us, W?"* 

Said Wilbur Wnght. nt shan't." 

And SD they built a glider, first, 

And then they built anolher. 

' There never were Iwg brDthei^ more 

Devated to each other* 

They ran a dusty little sbop 

For b icy cla-repai ring, 

And bought each other goda-pop 

And praised each other's daring. 

They glided here, they glided there, ^^ 

They sometimes skinned their nrosea. /^ 

—For learning how to njle the air ^ 

Was not a bed of rosea — 

But each would murniur, aflenvard. 

While patching up his bra. 

"Are we discouraged, W?" 

*0f ooufse we are not, 0!" 

And finally, at Kitty Hawk 

In Ninotccn-ThnGC (let's cheer Wi), 

The fir^ real acnopianc nealiy flewV 

With Orvllle there to steer It! 

-^nd kingdoms may forget th^ir kiriQS 

And dogs fonget their bites. 

But not till Man forgets his wings 

Will men forget the Wright^, 

-8mp^ef} vmcBfit t^net 

11 a- 

Answer the following questions 

1 . What was the aspiration of Wright brothers? 

2. Were they successfui in reaiizing their cherished dream? 

3. When did the first piane tal<e off? 

4. What kind of relationship the brothers share between themselves? 

5. What do you think about their achievement? 

6. What is the meaning of the phrase "skinned their noses"? 

Pick out the words in atliteration in the given iines 

About the fun of flying. 

-And kingdoms may forget their kings 

Answer the following questions in about 100 words each 

1 . Identify the qualities of the Wright brothers, their abilities and talents. 

2. Critically appreciate the poem The Flying Wonder' 


Collect pictures of different aeroplanes and paste them in the given space below. 


Sup |ikiiujit«iY 

The Thief 

YamiukocHildn'tl>dl^vd his aare. 

■You m^t ba foHng * ha said "You mean to say tF^at itians is aduafly a pfar^ 
where thene Is no dime and hence It has no policsmen.'' 

Mai kin nodded. *\ heanJ about ttfnom an extremefv reliable source. 01 course, 
!he focatlon of the planet Is a secnat and Its conandinatea are known only to a handful of 
peo pie- all of th em sworn to secrecy, 

Varniuk, one of the top thieves of the solar 
system decided that it wouid not be wise to show too 
much Entereat. Though Mallcin waa an old friencf 
wiiom he was meetlnfl after many yeara, Yannuk 
never tmated anybody, on principle. He deftly 
steered the conversation into other channels andr 
after mora than half-an-hour of making small talk, feft. 

A few days later Yarmuk bumpetf into Mafkfn 'accidentf/ and frtvtted km fHend 

for a meal. Ovier drinks In his bachelor apartment, Yamiuk harped on the sad stale of 
their crime-ridden society and how nrce it would be if every planet in the Linl¥eFBe 
couid be like Planet X - the orime-frae globe. While doing so, he quiedy tnfKed a 
tranquillizer in Malkin's second drink. Wiien the iatter lost oonsdous oontrol over 
himself due to its effect, Yarmuk asked for and obtained the addness of the man wtio 
knew the co-ordinates of Planet X. Mai kin negalned his senses with absolutely no 
recollection of what had taken place, finished his dd^iks and dlfknar and went home 
wflthfbnd memories of an old friendship renewed. 

Tfte next night, Yannuk rf rove over to the address tie trad got from MaPkhi. 
Private residences were navara problam for a thiaf of his calibre. Using a gas-gun to 
sedate the occupants of the house, he used a hallucinogen to get the Infomnatlon he 
wanted from the head of the household and returned to iiis apartment In an excited 
and expectant frame of mind. He fooked forward to stealing on a royal scaie. 

The next item on his list was the procurement of a suitable spacecraft. He 
therafore visited some dealers and picked up their catalogues. Pouring over these, 
Yamiuk graduaily formulated the charactepistios of the ship ha had in mind. What he 
wanted was a single or two-saater model, capable of travelling long distances. Finally 
he decided that a Mini Inter-Galactic ship. Model 31 (MJG-31} would be ideal for hLa 
p u rpose. It w^ tJie type used by rich tounsts. 


Yarmuk went back to one of the dealers, pretended he had yet to make up his 
mind and purchased a few operating manuals, the MIG-31's among them. He spent 
several hours going through the manual In detail, till he was confident that the new 
knowledge, superimposed on his existing vast piloting experience, was more than 
sufTicientto allow him to handle a MIG-31 with ease. 

For the next few days Yarmuk roamed the local 
space-port, looking over new arrivals. On his third day 
there, he saw what he wanted - an almost brand-new 
MIG-31 , brought In by a well-dressed young couple who 
were obviously on their honeymoon. He trailed them to 
their hotel and noted the number of the suite given to 
them. Going back to his apartment he picked up his 
essential requirements then went back and checked In at the same hotel. 

LafB that night, after making sure that the corridor was clear, he broke Into the 
couple's suite. The pair of them, tired after their day's exertions no doubt, were fast 
asleep, but Yarmuk was ta kl ng no chances . He gassed both of them, then q u Ickly and 
expertly went through their belongings. He took the space-port parklng-lot pass, the 
electronic card which opened their spaceship's airlock and controlled Its engines, and 
the hyper-wave radio key. He did not touch their money or other belongings. Locking 
the suite behind him, he went to his room, picked up his luggage and checked out, 
explaining to the surprised clerk that he had Just received a video-text message that 
h Is wife was seriously III . 

Taking a hell-taxi to the space-port, he had no trouble In entering the parking 
area or the ship, thanks to the pass and card he had stolen. Using his ^vife's illness' 
as an excuse again, he obtained almost immediate permission to blastoff. So far his 
luck had held out but now, without waming. It changed. As he gained the 
stratosphere, a wandering patrol-boat challenged him. He Identified his ship 
successfully but fumbled when asked for the pilot's personal particulars. He was 
ordered to return to the space-port for investigation. 

Yarmuk smiled grimly. He had not come so far to give up that easily. He 
acknowledged the order and pretended to comply with It, turning his ship around. The 
overdrive motor, which he had switched on the moment he was challenged, had 
warmed up by then, so punching in the required co-ordinates, he activated the jump 
switch. The shift into hyperspace so near a planetary mass, caused him to black out 
temporarily and gave the ship an awful Jerk, as he knew It would, but that was a risk he 
had to take. Regaining consciousness a few minutes later, he found himself In deep 
space and chortled gleefully 'Planet X, here I come- whether you like it or not." 


With his heart si nging, he headed for a king's ransom. Planet X lay at the edge 
of the Galaxy, a remote corner with thinly scattered stars, almost devoid of inhabited 
worlds. Probably that was the reason. Yarmuk thought that it had not 'developed' 
sufficiently for crime to take root. Landing unchallenged at the Planetary Capital's 
space-port, he parked, paid the surprisingly low entry fees and caught a taxi to a 
nearby hotel. Finding the rates extremely cheap by Central Galaxy standards, he 
booked himself into a luxury suite. 'Mig ht as wel I be comfortable and enjoy myself/ he 

Over the next couple of days, as Yarmuk reconnoitred the Capital City, he grew 
more and more surprised. He found that the citizens of Planet X were an extremely 
disciplined and honest lot-in fact, he had never encountered any other race I ike theirs. 
Not only did they have no policemen but they also appeared to have no guards or 
watchmen anywhere. To cap it all, most of their stores and shops did not have any 
assistants in them either. People walked in; picked up the items they wanted, 
punched out the required code on the unattended cashier's computer, put in their 
credit card so that their account could be debited and walked out. Yarmuk thought 
that an alarm would be raised or a barrier would come up at the exit if somebody did 
not follow the procedure but when he picked up a pair of socks and pretended to 
absent-mindedlyforgettopunchthecomputerwhilewalkingout, nothing happened. 

Yarmuk was delighted, but at the same time there was a nagging doubt at the 
back of his mind. Something was wrong somewhere, he thought. It was really 
surprising to find that there were no local telephones, anywhere in the Capital City of 
Planet X. When he asked how they communicated internally on the planet, he 
received vague and unsatisfactory replies. 

However, putting aside all apprehensions, Yarmuk laid his plans. He had 
located three posh jewellery shops in the Main Market, all of which were generally 
devoid of customers during the lunch hour None of them had any attendant or 
assistant either. He would walk into one the next afternoon, fill a suitcase with the 
choicest pieces, come back to his hotel, check out and be gone from the planet before 
anyone realised what had happened. It was as simple as that. 

Making his way to the mari<et, he entered the largest of the jewel lery shops. Its 
only occupant was a lone customer, an elderiy lady. So Yamnuk browsed around, 
mentally selecting the most valuable pieces and waited till the lady left. He then 
rapidly filled his suitcase with the items he had chosen, discarding the presentation 
cases so that more jewellery could be fitted in. Within ten minutes his suitcase was full 
and he estimated that it was now worth 50 million credits at the very least -enough for 
several lifetimes of luxurious living. Satisfied, he crossed the suitcase, locked it and 
sauntered casually out. 


He took a taxi to his hotel and , arriving there, asked the driver to wait while he 
collected his luggage priorto proceeding to the space-port. 

Yarmuk smiled to himself as he entered the lobby. It had been too easy - 
almost like taking candy from a child. Suddenly, however, two grey-clad men came 
out from behind a pillar. One of them held a steadily-pointed sten-gun while the other 
snapped handcuffs on to Yarmuk before the latter could realise what was happening. 
The second man then flashed an ID-Card in front of Yarmuk's startled eyes. 

"We are from the National Guard/' he intoned in a heavy, official voice. " You 

"What.... whatever for?" Yarmuk could only stammer. It was all too sudden for 
him. He was almost in a state of shock. 

Tor theft, stealing and grand larceny. You can count on spending at least 10 
years in ourAliens' jail." 

"How.... How did you find out?" Yarmuk was flabbergasted. 

The guardsman told him and now everything was clear to Yamiuk. He cursed 
himself for the fool he had been as he was led away. No wonder Planet X had no 
policemen, Guards, Shop assistants, red-lights or telephones. It did not need them 
with the type of population it had for Planet X was a world of telepathists, mind- 
readers and clairvoyants. 

Answerthe following questions 

1 . What was unique about Planet X? 

2. What was the plan of Yarmuk? 

3. Planet X was a worid of mysteries. Elucidate? 

Choose the correct answer 

1 . Yarmuk was a 

a) astronaut b) scientist c) thief d) police 

2. The spacecraft that Yarmuk used was 

a) MIG-15 b) MIG-31 c) MIG-30 d) F16 

3. The citizens of Planet X were extremely- 

a) disciplined b) notorious c) cunning d) brave 
4. Yarmuk's fiend design was to loo a 

a) bank b) super market c) house d) jewellery shop 
5. Planet X was a world of 

a) telepathists and mind- readers b) thieves c) supernatural beings d) demons 

Rewrite the jumbled sentences in a meaningful cogent order. 

1 . He stole a spacecraft. 

2. Yarmuk was a ttiiel 

3. Planet X was a world of telepathists and mind-readers. 

4. Yarmuk stole jewels from a jewellery shop. 

5. Yarmuk was flabbergasted. 

Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow. 

Late that night, after making sure that the corridor was clear^ he broke into the couple's 
su ite . Th e pa i r of th em , ti red afte r thei r day's exerti ons n o dou bt, we re fast aslee p , b ut Yarm u k 
was taking no chances. He gassed both of them, then quickly and expertly went through their 
belongings. He took the space-port parking-lot pass, the electronic card which opened their 
spaceship's airlock and controlled its engines, and the hyper-wave radio key He did not 
touch their money or other belongings. Locking the suite behind him, he went to his room, 
picked up his luggage and checked out, explaining to the surprised clerk that he had just 
received a video-text message that his wife was seriously ill. Taking a heli-taxi to the space- 
port, he had no trouble in entering the parking area or the ship, thanks to the pass and card he 
had stolen. Using his 'wife's illness' as an excuse again, he obtained almost immediate 
permission to blast off. 


1 . When did Yannuk break into the couple's suite? 

2. Why werethe couple fast asleep? 

3 . What we re th e th i ngs Ya rm u k stole f rem th e cou p le? 

4. What excuse wasusedbyYarmuktoobtainpemnission? 

5. HowdidYannukenterthe parking area? 



« wwwJreeshortstones,com, www,motivationalstones,com 

41 Source: 

The women of Chipko staying alive : Women ecology and development by 
Vandana Shiva, Published by Zed Book 1988 - ISBN 0862328233 p. 67. Khejarli 
Massacre in 1 730 - Business Standard, Anand Sankar, New Delhi Mar - 9, 2008, 

* The Girt Star- a UNICEF project 

* An extract from the interview "forking woman - Sunita Wiliiams" conducted by 
Naikasha Ahmed -published on oct 1, 2004 and posted in ''Career Tags" 

* Source: An extract from the book, "The War years Volume III", Sangamon Edition 
by Carl Sandburg, copyright 1939/ Harcourt Inc. This particular episode on 
Abraham Lincoln Is titled- 'The Legacy you leave is the one you live. ' 

* Dr. Ashokan and Dr Pushpanjanii - parents ofHithendran for an interview on organ 

* An adaptation from "Mariam's Letter" by Dhumketu 

* An adaption from Readers Digest - special edition, oct 2009, for When catastrophe 

^Our very special thanks to Thiru T Jaganathan, Director - Uniform System of 
School Education his invaluable suggestions.